35 research outputs found

    The potential of general practice to support young people who self-harm: a narrative review

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    Background Self-harm in young people is a growing public health concern. Young people commonly present to their GP for help with self-harm, and thus general practice may be a key setting to support young people who have self-harmed. Aim To examine the potential of general practice to support young people aged 10–25 years who have harmed themselves. Design & setting A narrative review of published and grey literature. Method The Scale for the Assessment of Narrative Review Articles (SANRA) was used to guide a narrative review to examine the potential of general practice to support young people who have self-harmed. The evidence is presented textually. Results The included evidence showed that GPs have a key role in supporting young people, and they sometimes relied on gut feeling when handling uncertainty on how to help young people who had self-harmed. Young people described the importance of initial clinician responses after disclosing self-harm, and if they were perceived to be negative, the self-harm could become worse. Conclusion In context of the evidence included, this review found that general practice is a key setting for the identification and management of self-harm in young people; but improvements are needed to enhance general practice care for young people to fulfil its potential

    Understanding self-harm in older adults: a qualitative study

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    Background Self-harm is the leading risk factor for suicide, with elevated rates reported amongst older populations. This study explores how older adults experience self-harm, identifying factors leading to self-harm. Methods Semi-structured interviews with older adults (≥ 60 years) engaging in self-harm and support workers from third sector services in England. Older adults were invited to participate in a follow-up interview. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and data analysed thematically. Ethical approval obtained from Keele University's Ethics Review Panel. A Patient Involvement group contributed to study design, data analysis and interpretation. Outcomes Between September 2017 to September 2018, 24 interviews were conducted involving 16 participants: nine older adults and seven support workers. Eight older adults consented to follow-up interviews. All older adults reported diagnoses of mental illness in addition to physical illness. Participants identified diverse stressors accumulating over the life-course leaving older adults particularly vulnerable to self-harm. Such stressors included adverse events, loss, interpersonal and health problems. A sense of shame and stigma amongst older people using self-harm to manage distress was also reported. Interpretation Self-harm is often concealed due to stigma and shame, being further accentuated amongst older adults, which may result in low levels of medical help-seeking behaviour for self-harm. Self-harm occurred along a spectrum of no-suicidal intent to high-levels of intent, suggesting self-harm holds different functions to older adults. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of self-harm in this age-group, and the heightened risk amongst those with comorbidities so adequate assessment, support and/or referral is provided

    The functions of self‐harm in young people and their perspectives about future general practitioner‐led care: A qualitative study

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    Background Self-harm in young people is a serious concern but a deeper understanding of the functions of self-harm in young people can tailor care and inform new clinical interventions to reduce repeat self-harm and suicide risk. General practitioners (GPs), as frontline healthcare professionals, have an important role in managing self-harm in young people. This study aimed to explore the functions of self-harm in young people and their perspectives on future GP-led care. Methods A qualitative study using interviews with young people aged between 16 and 25 years with a personal history of self-harm was conducted. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings Four distinct functions were identified: (1) handling emotional states; (2) self-punishment; (3) coping with mental illness and trauma; and (4) positive thoughts and protection. Young people valued GP-led support and felt future GP interventions should include self-help and be personalised. Conclusions These findings support clinicians, including GPs, to explore the functions of self-harm in young people aged 16–25 in a personalised approach to self-harm care. It should be noted that self-harm may serve more than one function for a young person and thus interventions should recognise this. Patient and Public Contribution A group consisting of young people with lived experience of self-harm, carers, the public, and those who work with young people who harm themselves conceived this study idea, informed recruitment methods and the interview topic guide, and supported the interpretation of findings

    Prevalence of osteoarthritis in lower middle- and low-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Evidence from the Global Burden of Disease studies suggests that osteoarthritis (OA) is a significant cause of disability globally; however, it is less clear how much of this burden exists in low-income and lower middle-income countries. This study aims to determine the prevalence of OA in people living in low-income and lower middle-income countries. Four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science) were systematically searched from inception to October 2018 for population-based studies. We included studies reporting the prevalence of OA among people aged 15 years and over in low-income and lower middle-income countries. The prevalence estimates were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Our study was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018112870.The search identified 7414 articles, of which 356 articles were selected for full text assessment. 34 studies were eligible and included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of OA was 16·05% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12·55–19·89), with studies demonstrating a substantial degree of heterogeneity (I2 = 99·50%). The pooled prevalence of OA was 16.4% (CI 11·60–21.78%) in South Asia, 15.7% (CI 5·31–30·25%) in East Asia and Pacific, and 14.2% (CI 7·95–21·89%) in Sub Saharan Africa. The meta-regression analysis showed that publication year, study sample size, risk of bias score and country-income categories were significantly associated with the variations in the prevalence estimates. The prevalence of OA is high in low-income and lower middle-income countries, with almost one in six of the study participants reported to have OA. With the changing population demographics and the shift to the emergence of non-communicable diseases, targeted public health strategies are urgently needed to address this growing epidemic in the aging population

    Novel Mortar containing waste glass and clay brick powder for sustainable construction

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    Due to the increasing need for sustainability, the need for a cleaner environment and resources conservation has now become very important. This study investigates the possible utilization of waste glass powder combined with pulverized fired clay brick wastes as a partial replacement for Portland cement in the production of mortar. The fired clay bricks and glasses were sourced as waste materials and then crushed into powder form. It is then combined and used to partially substitute Portland cement in the mortar at replacement levels of 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50% using a mix ratio of 1:2.75 at 0.5 water-binder ratios. Physical, chemical and morphological characterization was carried out on the pulverized materials. Further, the compressive strength test was carried out on casted 100 mm cube samples after curing by immersion in water. Obtained results revealed the pozzolanic reactivity potential of the blended waste glass and fired clay brick powder due to their amorphousness and high silica content, while also exhibiting similar oxides compositions. Moreover, the obtained compressive strength results of the blended mortar depict improved strength especially at an optimum value of 15% cement substitute with the blended fired clay brick and glass powder compare to the control. It is therefore suggested that blended mix of waste glass and fired clay brick powder with cement can be used in mortar component instead of open disposal in a landfill

    Prognostic factors for persistent pain after a distal radius fracture: A systematic review

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    Introduction: The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence regarding prognostic factors for persistent pain, including Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), after a distal radius fracture (DRF), a common condition after which persistent pain can develop. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Psychinfo, CINAHL, BNI, AMED and the Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials were searched from inception to May 2021 for prospective longitudinal prognostic factor studies investigating persistent pain in adults who had sustained a DRF. The Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework were used to assess the strength of evidence. Results: A search yielded 440 studies of which 7 studies met full eligibility criteria. From five studies we found low evidence for high baseline pain or an ulnar styloid fracture as prognostic factors for persistent pain, and very low evidence for diabetes or older age. From two studies, investigating an outcome of CRPS, there was low evidence for high baseline pain, slow reaction time, dysynchiria, swelling and catastrophising as prognostic factors, and very low evidence for depression. Sex was found not to be a prognostic factor for CRPS or persistent pain. Conclusions: The associations between prognostic factors and persistent pain following a DRF are unclear. The small number of factors investigated in more than one study, along with poor reporting and methodological limitations contributed to an assessment of low to very low strength of evidence. Further prospective studies, investigating psychosocial factors as candidate predictors of multidimensional pain outcomes are recommended

    The functions of self‐harm in young people and their perspectives about future general practitioner‐led care: A qualitative study

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    Background: Self‐harm in young people is a serious concern but a deeper understanding of the functions of self‐harm in young people can tailor care and inform new clinical interventions to reduce repeat self‐harm and suicide risk. General practitioners (GPs), as frontline healthcare professionals, have an important role in managing self‐harm in young people. This study aimed to explore the functions of self‐harm in young people and their perspectives on future GP‐led care. Methods: A qualitative study using interviews with young people aged between 16 and 25 years with a personal history of self‐harm was conducted. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings: Four distinct functions were identified: (1) handling emotional states; (2) self‐punishment; (3) coping with mental illness and trauma; and (4) positive thoughts and protection. Young people valued GP‐led support and felt future GP interventions should include self‐help and be personalised. Conclusions: These findings support clinicians, including GPs, to explore the functions of self‐harm in young people aged 16–25 in a personalised approach to self‐harm care. It should be noted that self‐harm may serve more than one function for a young person and thus interventions should recognise this. Patient and Public Contribution: A group consisting of young people with lived experience of self‐harm, carers, the public, and those who work with young people who harm themselves conceived this study idea, informed recruitment methods and the interview topic guide, and supported the interpretation of findings

    The prevalence and pattern of comorbid long-term conditions with low back pain and osteoarthritis in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain, specifically low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis (OA), are a major cause of global disability, reduced quality of life and high socioeconomic burden. Research in high income countries suggests MSK pain is often comorbid with other long-term conditions / non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the epidemiology of comorbid NCDs and MSK pain in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is unclear. This systematic review aims to describe the prevalence and pattern of comorbid NCDs in adults with MSK pain in LMICs. Nine databases were searched for epidemiological studies in LMICs (World Bank categories). Paired researchers independently identified studies, extracted data, and completed critical appraisal using Hoy risk of bias tool. Random-effect meta-analysis was used to estimate prevalence of NCDs comorbid with MSK pain. From 2112 citations; 14 studies (n=6093 adults with MSK pain, mean age=46.9years) were included. Overall prevalence of MSK pain with comorbid NCDs was 46.1% (95%CI 32.3 - 59.9). Systemic hypertension had the highest comorbid prevalence with MSK pain (42.6%, 95%CI 25.6-59.6), followed by diabetes (26.7%, 95%CI 16.1-37.3) and mental health conditions (anxiety/depression; 24.9% 95%CI 11.5-38.4). A high proportion of patients with MSK pain in LMICs experience comorbid NCDs. Variable data/population samples, and under-reporting limit accurate capture of prevalence estimates. Understanding the true burden of MSK pain (specifically lower back pain and hip/knee osteoarthritis) and comorbid NCDs is critical to informing effective treatment strategies. The health systems implications of these findings are imperative towards person-centred care, organisation of care and efficient resource utilisation in LMICs

    An evaluation of a public partnership project between academic institutions and young people with Black African, Asian and Caribbean heritage

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    BackgroundThis project (named Reinvent) aimed to promote Public Involvement (PI) in health research. Academics worked with a community group, the Eloquent Praise & Empowerment Dance Company, to develop a community partnership with young people from Black African, Asian and Caribbean heritage communities. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the Reinvent project for key learnings on how to engage and build partnerships with young people from Black African, Asian and Caribbean heritage communities.MethodsReinvent developed a steering group which consisted of five young people, one academic, a Race Equality Ambassador and the Director of Eloquent. The steering group co-produced an agenda for two workshops and the evaluation tools used. The content of the workshops included drama exercises, discussions on physical and mental health, nutrition and school-life, short introductions to the concepts of research and PI, and group work to critique and improve a video currently used to promote PI in health research to young people. The evaluation tools included using the ‘Cube’ evaluation framework, video-blogging and collecting anonymous feedback.FindingsThe responses to the ‘Cube’ evaluation framework were positive across all four domains (agenda, voice, contribute change) in both workshops. A few of the young people described having a better understanding of the meaning and practice of PI in a video-blog. The anonymous feedback suggested that the workshops had increased young people’s confidence in sharing their thoughts and opinions about health and PI.ConclusionReinvent has shown that academic institutions and young people from an under-served community can partner to co-design workshops and apply evaluation tools. Working with young people in an environment in which they were comfortable, and by researchers joining in with the activities that the young people enjoyed (such as dance), enabled more informal and open conversations to develop. More work is needed to build upon this project so that young people can feel confident and supported to get involved in PI activities relating to research

    Comparative effectiveness of treatment options for subacromial shoulder conditions:a systematic review and network meta-analysis

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    Background: There are currently many treatment options for patients with subacromial shoulder conditions (SSCs). Clinical decision-making regarding the best treatment option is often difficult. This study aims to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of treatment options for relieving pain and improving function in patients with SSCs. Methods: Eight databases [including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry] were searched from inception until April 2020. Randomised clinical/controlled trials of adult patients investigating the effects of nonsurgical (e.g. corticosteroid injections, therapeutic exercise, shockwave therapy) and surgical treatment for SSCs, compared with each other, placebo, usual care or no treatment, were retrieved. Pairs of reviewers screened studies independently, quality appraised eligible studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, extracted and checked data for accuracy. Primary outcomes were pain and disability in the short term (⩽3 months) and long term (⩾6 months). Direct and indirect evidence of treatment effectiveness was synthesised using random-effects network meta-analysis. Results: The review identified 177 eligible trials. Summary estimates (based on 99 trials providing suitable data, 6764 patients, 20 treatment options) showed small to moderate effects for several treatments, but no significant differences on pain or function between many active treatment comparisons. The primary analysis indicated that exercise and laser therapy may provide comparative benefit in terms of both pain and function at different follow-up time-points, with larger effects found for laser in the short term at 2–6 weeks, although direct evidence was provided by one trial only, and for exercise in the longer term [standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.59 at 3–6 months] compared with control. Sensitivity analyses excluding studies at increased risk of bias confirmed only the comparative effects of exercise as being robust for both pain and function up until 3-month follow-up. Conclusion: Current evidence shows small to moderate effect sizes for most treatment options for SSCs. Six treatments had a high probability of being most effective, in the short term, for pain and function [acupuncture, manual therapy, exercise, exercise plus manual therapy, laser therapy and Microcurrent (MENS) (TENS)], but with low certainty for most treatment options. After accounting for risk of bias, there is evidence of moderate certainty for the comparative effects of exercise on function in patients with SSCs. Future large, high-quality pragmatic randomised trials or meta-analyses are needed to better understand whether specific subgroups of patients respond better to some treatments than others
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