183 research outputs found

    Friction as Contrast Mechanism in Heterodyne Force Microscopy

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    The nondestructive imaging of subsurface structures on the nanometer scale has been a long-standing desire in both science and industry. A few impressive images were published so far that demonstrate the general feasibility by combining ultrasound with an Atomic Force Microscope. From different excitation schemes, Heterodyne Force Microscopy seems to be the most promising candidate delivering the highest contrast and resolution. However, the physical contrast mechanism is unknown, thereby preventing any quantitative analysis of samples. Here we show that friction at material boundaries within the sample is responsible for the contrast formation. This result is obtained by performing a full quantitative analysis, in which we compare our experimentally observed contrasts with simulations and calculations. Surprisingly, we can rule out all other generally believed responsible mechanisms, like Rayleigh scattering, sample (visco)elasticity, damping of the ultrasonic tip motion, and ultrasound attenuation. Our analytical description paves the way for quantitative SubSurface-AFM imaging.Comment: 7 pages main paper + 11 pages supplementary material

    An experimental proposal to study collapse of the wave function in travelling-wave parametric amplifiers

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    The read-out of a microwave qubit state occurs using an amplification chain that enlarges the quantum state to a signal detectable with a classical measurement apparatus. However, at what point in this process did we really `measure' the quantum state? In order to investigate whether the `measurement' takes place in the amplification chain, we propose to construct a microwave interferometer that has a parametric amplifier added to each of its arms. Feeding the interferometer with single photons, the visibility depends on the gain of the amplifiers and whether a measurement collapse has taken place during the amplification process. We calculate the interference visibility as given by standard quantum mechanics as a function of gain, insertion loss and temperature and find a magnitude of 1/31/3 in the limit of large gain without taking into account losses. This number reduces to 0.260.26 in case the insertion loss of the amplifiers is 2.22.2 dB at a temperature of 5050 mK. We show that if the wave function collapses within the interferometer, we will measure a reduced visibility compared to the prediction from standard quantum mechanics once this collapse process sets in.Comment: 21 pages and 23 figures (including appendices and subfigures). v4: Abstract and introduction rewritten and note on stochasticity of quantum state collapse added to section 6. v5: no content changes w.r.t. v

    Mechanical properties of Pt monatomic chains

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    The mechanical properties of platinum monatomic chains were investigated by simultaneous measurement of an effective stiffness and the conductance using our newly developed mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) technique with a tuning fork as a force sensor. When stretching a monatomic contact (two-atom chain), the stiffness and conductance increases at the early stage of stretching and then decreases just before breaking, which is attributed to a transition of the chain configuration and bond weakening. A statistical analysis was made to investigate the mechanical properties of monatomic chains. The average stiffness shows minima at the peak positions of the length-histogram. From this result we conclude that the peaks in the length-histogram are a measure of the number of atoms in the chains, and that the chains break from a strained state. Additionally, we find that the smaller the initial stiffness of the chain is, the longer the chain becomes. This shows that softer chains can be stretched longer.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Spin-mediated dissipation and frequency shifts of a cantilever at milliKelvin temperatures

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    We measure the dissipation and frequency shift of a magnetically coupled cantilever in the vicinity of a silicon chip, down to 2525 mK. The dissipation and frequency shift originates from the interaction with the unpaired electrons, associated with the dangling bonds in the native oxide layer of the silicon, which form a two dimensional system of electron spins. We approach the sample with a 3.433.43 őľ\mum-diameter magnetic particle attached to an ultrasoft cantilever, and measure the frequency shift and quality factor as a function of temperature and the distance. Using a recent theoretical analysis [J. M. de Voogd et al., arXiv:1508.07972 (2015)] of the dynamics of a system consisting of a spin and a magnetic resonator, we are able to fit the data and extract the relaxation time T1=0.39¬Ī0.08T_1=0.39\pm0.08 ms and spin density ŌÉ=0.14¬Ī0.01\sigma=0.14\pm0.01 spins per nm2^2. Our analysis shows that at temperatures ‚ȧ500\leq500 mK magnetic dissipation is an important source of non-contact friction.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Nanopositioning of a diamond nanocrystal containing a single NV defect center

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    Precise control over the position of a single quantum object is important for many experiments in quantum science and nanotechnology. We report on a technique for high-accuracy positioning of individual diamond nanocrystals. The positioning is done with a home-built nanomanipulator under real-time scanning electron imaging, yielding an accuracy of a few nanometers. This technique is applied to pick up, move and position a single NV defect center contained in a diamond nanocrystal. We verify that the unique optical and spin properties of the NV center are conserved by the positioning process.Comment: 3 pages, 3 figures; high-resolution version available at http://www.ns.tudelft.nl/q

    Coherent laser control of the current through molecular junctions

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    The electron tunneling through a molecular junction modeled by a single site weakly coupled to two leads is studied in the presence of a time-dependent external field using a master equation approach. In the case of small bias voltages and high carrier frequencies of the external field, we observe the phenomenon of coherent destruction of tunneling, i.e. the current through the molecular junction vanishes completely for certain parameters of the external field. In previous studies the tunneling within isolated and open multi-site systems was suppressed; it is shown here that the tunneling between a single site and electronic reservoirs, i.e. the leads, can be suppressed as well. For larger bias voltages the current does not vanish any more since further tunneling channels participate in the electron conduction and we also observe photon-assisted tunneling which leads to steps in the current-voltage characteristics. The described phenomena are demonstrated not only for monochromatic fields but also for laser pulses and therefore could be used for ultrafast optical switching of the current through molecular junctions.Comment: 6 pages and 4 figure

    A method for mechanical generation of radio frequency fields in nuclear magnetic resonance force microscopy

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    We present an innovative method for magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with ultra-low dissipation, by using the higher modes of the mechanical detector as radio frequency (rf) source. This method allows MRFM on samples without the need to be close to an rf source. Furthermore, since rf sources require currents that give dissipation, our method enables nuclear magnetic resonance experiments at ultra-low temperatures. Removing the need for an on-chip rf source is an important step towards a MRFM which can be widely used in condensed matter physics.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, to be submitted to Physical Review Applie
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