23 research outputs found

    PCA-ruiskupumppu lääkkeellisen kivunhoidon välineenä

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    Opinn√§ytety√∂n tarkoituksena oli tehd√§ l√§√§kkeellisess√§ kivunhoidossa apuv√§lineen√§ k√§ytett√§v√§st√§ PCA-ruiskupumpusta ohje-dvd hoitohenkil√∂kunnalle sek√§ kirjallinen ohje potilaille, joiden kipul√§√§kkeen antov√§lineen√§ k√§ytet√§√§n PCA-ruiskupumppua. Ohje-dvd ja potilasohje k√§sitteliv√§t B Braunin Perfusor¬ģ Space -PCA-ruiskupumppua ja ohjeet tehtiin yhteisty√∂n√§ Oulun yliopistollisen sairaalan ja laitevalmistaja B Braunin kanssa. Ohje-dvd ja potilasohje laitettiin Oys:n intranettiin, jolloin hoitohenkil√∂kunta saa ne helposti k√§ytt√∂√∂ns√§. Ohje-dvd:n tavoitteena on lis√§t√§ hoitajien osaamista, mink√§ seurauksena l√§√§kehoidon turvallisuus lis√§√§ntyy, esimerkiksi l√§√§kkeiden yliannostuksen riski minimoidaan. Kirjallisen potilasohjeen tavoitteena on auttaa potilasta ymm√§rt√§m√§√§n PCA-ruiskupumpun tarkoitus kivunhoidossa sek√§ ohjeistaa se, miten h√§n pystyy itse osallistumaan kivunhoitoonsa PCA-ominaisuuden avulla. Opinn√§ytety√∂ toteutettiin projektina. Projektiraportin kirjallisessa osuudessa k√§sitell√§√§n kipua, kivun fysiologiaa, kivun arviointia sek√§ kivunhoitomenetelmi√§, erityisesti akuutin kivun l√§√§kkeellisi√§ kivunhoitomenetelmi√§. Kirjallisessa osuudessa k√§sitell√§√§n my√∂s PCA-ruiskupumppua ja siin√§ yleisimmin k√§ytettyj√§ l√§√§kkeit√§ sek√§ potilasohjausta ja hoitohenkil√∂kunnan perehdytyst√§. Kivunhoito on hoitoty√∂n t√§rkeimpi√§ teht√§vi√§. Potilaalla on oikeus laadukkaaseen kivunhoitoon ja h√§nt√§ tulee kuunnella ja h√§nen tuntemuksensa tulee ottaa vakavasti. Tehokas kivunhoito edist√§√§ potilaan kuntoutumista, ehk√§isee kipujen kroonistumisen sek√§ lyhent√§√§ sairaalassaoloaikaa. T√§m√§n vuoksi hoitohenkil√∂kunnalla tulee olla ajantasainen tieto kivunhoidosta ja taito hoitaa kipua eri menetelmill√§.The purpose of this study was to create a manual of the PCA-syringe pump used in medical pain care. For nursing staff the manual was made in a dvd-form and for patients in a written form. Both manuals are about the B Braun Perfusor¬ģ Space -PCA-syringe pump and were made in co-operation with Oulu University Hospital and the manufacturer B Braun. The manual-dvd and the patient guide were published in the hospital¬īs intranet, therefore enabling an easy access for the nursing staff. The objective of the dvd is to increase the nurses¬ī know-how and the safety of medical care, e.g. minimize the risk of overdose. The paper guide helps the patient to understand the role the PCA-syringe pump has in his or her pain care and partake in it. The study was carried out as a project. The project report includes knowledge about pain, pain physiology, pain evaluation and treatments, particularly the medical care in an acute pain. The written part also goes through the PCA-syringe pump and the most common medicines used with it, patient guidance and familiarization of the nursing staff. Managing pain is one of the most important objects of nursing. The patient has the right for quality care and should be listened to and taken seriously. An effective pain care enhances rehabilitation, prevents chronic pain and shortens the stay in the hospital. Therefore the nursing staff should have an up-to-date know-how of pain care and the skills to use different methods.Opinn√§ytety√∂ss√§mme valmistui DVD, joka on n√§ht√§vill√§ Oys:n intranetiss√§

    Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation

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    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by 0.22 W m-2 (27%) to -0.60 W m-2. Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes

    Lukutaitofoorumista lukuliikkeeseen

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    Opetus- ja kulttuuriministeri Sanni Grahn-Laasonen asetti syksyllä 2017 lukutaitofoorumin, jonka tehtävänä oli laatia lasten ja nuorten lukemisharrastuksen ja lukutaidon kehittämisen suuntaviivat (OKM/97/040/2017, asettamispäätös). Lukutaitofoorumi julkaisi suosituksensa 14.9., ja jatkaa toimintaansa vuoden 2018 loppuun. Tässä artikkelissa kuvaamme foorumin työskentelyä sekä suosituksia. Pohdimme myös niiden vaikuttavuusmahdollisuuksia.nonPeerReviewe

    Lapin koulujen maakunnallista verkostoa rakentamassa

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    T√§m√§ julkaisu on l√§pileikkaus DigiGO!‚ÄĒDigitalisaatio koulutuksessa, oppimisessa & osaamisessa ‚Äďhankkeen (2017‚Äď2019) toimintaan. DigiGO! on Lapin ammattikorkeakoulun, Lapin yliopiston ja Lapin yliopiston harjoittelukoulun yhteishanke, jonka tavoitteena on ollut vastata koulukulttuurin muutoksiin ja niihin liittyviin digitalisaation haasteisiin Lapin alueella ja Lapin alueen erityiskysymykset huomioiden. Kirjoittajien johdattelemana lukija saa kuvan DigiGO! -hankkeen etenemisest√§ aina kuntien ja koulujen digitalisaation ja verkostoitumisen nykytilan kartoittamisesta niihin tapoihin, joilla opettajien digitaitoja ja koulujen verkostoyhteisty√∂t√§ on hankkeen aikana tuettu ja kehitetty. Lis√§ksi lukija p√§√§see tutustumaan kahteen lukiopilottiin, joissa lukion opetussuunnitelman sis√§lt√∂ihin on l√§hdetty etsim√§√§n uusia l√§hestymistapoja ja ty√∂kaluja hankkeen asiantuntijoiden avulla. Teos on suunnattu erityisesti opettajille ja kuntien koulutustoiminnasta vastaaville henkil√∂ille sek√§ jokaiselle digitalisaatiosta koulutuksessa, oppimisessa ja osaamisessa kiinnostuneelle. Julkaisu on tarkoitettu paitsi ikkunaksi hankkeen toimintaan, my√∂s her√§tt√§m√§√§n ajatuksia ja ideoita siit√§, miten perusopetuksessa ja toisella asteella voidaan tehd√§ yhteisty√∂t√§ kor-keakoulujen kanssa. Uudenlainen, DigiGo! ‚Äďhankkeessa kehitetty yhteisty√∂ tukee koulujen digitalisaatiota, tarjoaa innovatiivisia t√§ydennyskoulutusmahdollisuuksia ja tukee opetussuunnitelman mukaista opetusta ja oppimista. DigiGO! -hankkeen rahoituksen ovat my√∂nt√§neet Euroopan sosiaalirahasto ja Pohjois-Pohjanmaan ELY-keskus

    Menstrual cycle length variation by demographic characteristics from the Apple Women’s Health Study

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    Abstract Menstrual characteristics are important signs of women‚Äôs health. Here we examine the variation of menstrual cycle length by age, ethnicity, and body weight using 165,668 cycles from 12,608 participants in the US using mobile menstrual tracking apps. After adjusting for all covariates, mean menstrual cycle length is shorter with older age across all age groups until age 50 and then became longer for those age 50 and older. Menstrual cycles are on average 1.6 (95%CI: 1.2, 2.0) days longer for Asian and 0.7 (95%CI: 0.4, 1.0) days longer for Hispanic participants compared to white non-Hispanic participants. Participants with BMI‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČ40‚ÄČkg/m2 have 1.5 (95%CI: 1.2, 1.8) days longer cycles compared to those with BMI between 18.5 and 25‚ÄČkg/m2. Cycle variability is the lowest among participants aged 35‚Äď39 but are considerably higher by 46% (95%CI: 43%, 48%) and 45% (95%CI: 41%, 49%) among those aged under 20 and between 45‚Äď49. Cycle variability increase by 200% (95%CI: 191%, 210%) among those aged above 50 compared to those in the 35‚Äď39 age group. Compared to white participants, those who are Asian and Hispanic have larger cycle variability. Participants with obesity also have higher cycle variability. Here we confirm previous observations of changes in menstrual cycle pattern with age across reproductive life span and report new evidence on the differences of menstrual variation by ethnicity and obesity status. Future studies should explore the underlying determinants of the variation in menstrual characteristics

    Multicomponent new particle formation from sulfuric acid, ammonia, and biogenic vapors

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    A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH3) from livestock and fertilizers. Here, we show how NOx suppresses particle formation, while HOMs, sulfuric acid, and NH3 have a synergistic enhancing effect on particle formation. We postulate a novel mechanism, involving HOMs, sulfuric acid, and ammonia, which is able to closely reproduce observations of particle formation and growth in daytime boreal forest and similar environments. The findings elucidate the complex interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic vapors in the atmospheric aerosol system.Peer reviewe

    Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles

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    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood1. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours2. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere3,4, and that ions have a relatively minor role5. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded6,7. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of őĪ-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the cluster binding energies of representative HOMs. Ion-induced nucleation of pure organic particles constitutes a potentially widespread source of aerosol particles in terrestrial environments with low sulfuric acid pollution

    The Transformation of Quantity into Quality: Critical Mass in the Formation of Customary International Law

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    The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere

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