4,842 research outputs found

    Resonance states in a cylindrical quantum dot with an external magnetic field

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    Bound and resonance states of quantum dots play a significant role in photo-absorption processes. In this work, we analyze a cylindrical quantum dot, its spectrum and, in particular, the behaviour of the lowest resonance state when a magnetic field is applied along the symmetry axis of the cylinder. To obtain the energy and width of the resonance we use the complex rotation method. As it is expected the structure of the spectrum is strongly influenced by the Landau levels associated to the magnetic field. We show how this structure affects the behaviour of the resonance state and that the binding of the resonance has a clear interpretation in terms of the Landau levels and the probability of localization of the resonance state. The localization probability and the fidelity of the lowest energy state allows to identify two different physical regimes, a large field-small quantum dot radius regime and a small field-large quantum dot radius, where the binding of the resonance is dominated by the field strength or the potential well, respectively

    Quantum Walk on a Line with Two Entangled Particles

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    We introduce the concept of a quantum walk with two particles and study it for the case of a discrete time walk on a line. A quantum walk with more than one particle may contain entanglement, thus offering a resource unavailable in the classical scenario and which can present interesting advantages. In this work, we show how the entanglement and the relative phase between the states describing the coin degree of freedom of each particle will influence the evolution of the quantum walk. In particular, the probability to find at least one particle in a certain position after NN steps of the walk, as well as the average distance between the two particles, can be larger or smaller than the case of two unentangled particles, depending on the initial conditions we choose. This resource can then be tuned according to our needs, in particular to enhance a given application (algorithmic or other) based on a quantum walk. Experimental implementations are briefly discussed

    Spin-Space Entanglement Transfer and Quantum Statistics

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    Both the topics of entanglement and particle statistics have aroused enormous research interest since the advent of quantum mechanics. Using two pairs of entangled particles we show that indistinguishability enforces a transfer of entanglement from the internal to the spatial degrees of freedom without any interaction between these degrees of freedom. Moreover, sub-ensembles selected by local measurements of the path will in general have different amounts of entanglement in the internal degrees of freedom depending on the statistics (either fermionic or bosonic) of the particles involved.Comment: 5 figures. Various changes for clarification and references adde

    Entanglement of Two Impurities through Electron Scattering

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    We study how two magnetic impurities embedded in a solid can be entangled by an injected electron scattering between them and by subsequent measurement of the electron's state. We start by investigating an ideal case where only the electronic spin interacts successively through the same unitary operation with the spins of the two impurities. In this case, high (but not maximal) entanglement can be generated with a significant success probability. We then consider a more realistic description which includes both the forward and back scattering amplitudes. In this scenario, we obtain the entanglement between the impurities as a function of the interaction strength of the electron-impurity coupling. We find that our scheme allows us to entangle the impurities maximally with a significant probability

    Optimal State Discrimination Using Particle Statistics

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    We present an application of particle statistics to the problem of optimal ambiguous discrimination of quantum states. The states to be discriminated are encoded in the internal degrees of freedom of identical particles, and we use the bunching and antibunching of the external degrees of freedom to discriminate between various internal states. We show that we can achieve the optimal single-shot discrimination probability using only the effects of particle statistics. We discuss interesting applications of our method to detecting entanglement and purifying mixed states. Our scheme can easily be implemented with the current technology

    Lignin Conversion to Value-Added Small-Molecule Chemicals : Towards Integrated Forest Biorefineries

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    Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer on Earth and has signiïŹcant potential as a feedstock for industrial use. Due to its intrinsic heterogeneity and recalcitrance, lignin has been regarded as a low-value side-product in the pulp and paper industry and in second-generation biorefineries. However, novel technologies are currently being explored to utilize lignin as a renewable resource for bio-based chemicals, fuels, and materials. The efficient valorization of lignin would also improve the economics and sustainability of forest-based industries. Deriving value from lignin, beyond low-value heat and power, is thus essential for the success of a global circular bioeconomy employing lignocellulosic biomass as a raw material.This thesis discusses the possibility of producing high-value chemicals from technical lignin streams via thermochemical–biological methods. The work deals with four major research themes: (1) providing insights into the physicochemical properties of technical lignins that could be valuable in designing routes for their valorization, (2) developing technologies for the thermochemical depolymerization of lignin under batch and continuous-flow conditions, (3) developing strategies for the biological valorization of lignin by combining thermochemical depolymerization with microbial conversion, and (4) assessing the techno-economic viability of lignin as a feedstock for sustainable chemical production in a biorefinery.Comprehensive physicochemical characterization of technical lignins is crucial in the development of molecularly tailored lignin-based applications. Elucidating the structural and compositional features can facilitate the matching of technical lignin streams with suitable valorization strategies, including thermochemical depolymerization. Two thermochemical depolymerization approaches were investigated for the production of low-molecular-weight aromatics from technical lignin: base-catalyzed depolymerization and oxidative depolymerization. Both approaches were also found to be effective means of pretreatment enabling the microbial conversion of kraft lignin.Continuous processing allowed hydrothermal lignin treatment at exceptionally short residence times, and this is anticipated to be an important stepping-stone toward technical lignin valorization. Membrane filtration appeared to be a practical method of separating complex depolymerized lignin mixtures for product fractionation and upgrading. Bimetallic catalyst systems based on Cu, Mn, and V improved the oxidative conversion of lignosulfonate and kraft lignins into value-added aromatic compounds. Techno-economic analysis underlined the viability of large-scale chemical production from kraft lignin by oxidative depolymerization, offering opportunities for process integration with traditional pulp mills