1,659 research outputs found

    Propagation of surface initiated rolling contact fatigue cracks in bearing Steel

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    Surface initiated rolling contact fatigue, leading to a surface failure known as pitting, is a life limiting failure mode in many modern machine elements, particularly rolling element bearings. Most research on rolling contact fatigue considers total life to pitting. Instead, this work studies the growth of rolling contact fatigue cracks before they develop into surface pits in an attempt to better understand crack propagation mechanisms. A triple-contact disc machine was used to perform pitting experiments on bearing steel samples under closely controlled contact conditions in mixed lubrication regime. Crack growth across the specimen surface is monitored and crack propagation rates extracted. The morphology of the generated cracks is observed by preparing sections of cracked specimens at the end of the test. It was found that crack initiation occurred very early in total life, which was attributed to high asperity stresses due to mixed lubrication regime. Total life to pitting was dominated by crack propagation. Results provide direct evidence of two distinct stages of crack growth in rolling contact fatigue: stage 1, within which cracks grow at a slow and relatively steady rate, consumed most of the total life; and stage 2, reached at a critical crack length, within which the propagation rate rapidly increases. Contact pressure and crack size were shown to be the main parameters controlling the propagation rate. Results show that crack propagation under rolling contact fatigue follows similar trends to those known to occur in classical fatigue. A log-log plot of measured crack growth rates against the product of maximum contact pressure and the square root of crack length, a parameter describing the applied stress intensity, produces a straight line for stage 2 propagation. This provides the first evidence that growth of hereby-identified stage 2 rolling contact fatigue cracks can be described by a Paris-type power law, where the rate of crack growth across the surface is proportional to the contact pressure raised to a power of approximately 7.5

    On the variational noncommutative Poisson geometry

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    We outline the notions and concepts of the calculus of variational multivectors within the Poisson formalism over the spaces of infinite jets of mappings from commutative (non)graded smooth manifolds to the factors of noncommutative associative algebras over the equivalence under cyclic permutations of the letters in the associative words. We state the basic properties of the variational Schouten bracket and derive an interesting criterion for (non)commutative differential operators to be Hamiltonian (and thus determine the (non)commutative Poisson structures). We place the noncommutative jet-bundle construction at hand in the context of the quantum string theory.Comment: Proc. Int. workshop SQS'11 `Supersymmetry and Quantum Symmetries' (July 18-23, 2011; JINR Dubna, Russia), 4 page

    An integrable shallow water equation with peaked solitons

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    We derive a new completely integrable dispersive shallow water equation that is biHamiltonian and thus possesses an infinite number of conservation laws in involution. The equation is obtained by using an asymptotic expansion directly in the Hamiltonian for Euler's equations in the shallow water regime. The soliton solution for this equation has a limiting form that has a discontinuity in the first derivative at its peak.Comment: LaTeX file. Figure available from authors upon reques

    Weak Transversality and Partially Invariant Solutions

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    New exact solutions are obtained for several nonlinear physical equations, namely the Navier-Stokes and Euler systems, an isentropic compressible fluid system and a vector nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The solution methods make use of the symmetry group of the system in situations when the standard Lie method of symmetry reduction is not applicable.Comment: 23 pages, preprint CRM-284

    Non-classical symmetries and the singular manifold method: A further two examples

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    This paper discusses two equations with the conditional Painleve property. The usefulness of the singular manifold method as a tool for determining the non-classical symmetries that reduce the equations to ordinary differential equations with the Painleve property is confirmed once moreComment: 9 pages (latex), to appear in Journal of Physics

    Rational Approximate Symmetries of KdV Equation

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    We construct one-parameter deformation of the Dorfman Hamiltonian operator for the Riemann hierarchy using the quasi-Miura transformation from topological field theory. In this way, one can get the approximately rational symmetries of KdV equation and then investigate its bi-Hamiltonian structure.Comment: 14 pages, no figure

    Jet Bundles in Quantum Field Theory: The BRST-BV method

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    The geometric interpretation of the Batalin-Vilkovisky antibracket as the Schouten bracket of functional multivectors is examined in detail. The identification is achieved by the process of repeated contraction of even functional multivectors with fermionic functional 1-forms. The classical master equation may then be considered as a generalisation of the Jacobi identity for Poisson brackets, and the cohomology of a nilpotent even functional multivector is identified with the BRST cohomology. As an example, the BRST-BV formulation of gauge fixing in theories with gauge symmetries is reformulated in the jet bundle formalism. (Hopefully this version will be TeXable)Comment: 26 page

    Bi-Hamiltonian structures for integrable systems on regular time scales

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    A construction of the bi-Hamiltonian structures for integrable systems on regular time scales is presented. The trace functional on an algebra of δ\delta-pseudo-differential operators, valid on an arbitrary regular time scale, is introduced. The linear Poisson tensors and the related Hamiltonians are derived. The quadratic Poisson tensors is given by the use of the recursion operators of the Lax hierarchies. The theory is illustrated by Δ\Delta-differential counterparts of Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur and Kaup-Broer hierarchies.Comment: 18 page
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