98 research outputs found

    Osteoconductivity of hydrothermally synthesized beta-tricalcium phosphate composed of rod-shaped particles under mechanical unloading

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    Spherical beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules synthesized using a unique dropping slurry method expressed good osteoconductivity with prominent bone apposition and bioresorbability when implanted into the rat femur (Gonda et al, Key Eng. Mater. 361-363:1013-1016, 2008). The spherical β-TCP granules were implanted into the bone defect created in the distal end of the right femur of each 8-week-old female Wistar rat. To analyze performance of the spherical β-TCP granules as bone substitute in the bone with reduction in osteogenic potential, the right sciatic neurectomy was performed after implantation and the right hind limb was kept unloaded for 2 weeks before euthanization. Four weeks after implantation, some spherical β-TCP granules with resorption in part were surrounded by newly formed bone. Eight and 12 weeks after implantation, most of the residual β-TCP granules were embedded in newly formed bone, and total volume of the implant and newly formed bone was more than the other portions of the bone or the bone of control animals. Osteoclast activity in the implanted area was also higher than the other portions of the bone or the bone of control animals. Replacement of the intraosseous residual β-TCP granules for bone progressed at 12 weeks after implantation compared to those at 8 weeks after implantation. These data suggested that the spherical β-TCP granules stimulated osteogenesis and osteoclast activity of the unloaded bone

    Stimulatory effect of hydrothermally synthesized biodegradable hydroxyapatite granules on osteogenesis and direct association with osteoclasts.

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    Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA) granules with a unique spherical shape were prepared using an applied hydrothermal method. Spherical stoichiometric HA granules were also prepared by normal sintering and both granules were used for implantation into rat tibiae to compare the biological responses to each implant. Twelve and 24 weeks after implantation, the volume of calcium-deficient HA granules was significantly less than that of stoichiometric HA granules, and the biodegradability of calcium-deficient HA granules was confirmed. The larger number of osteoclasts, larger osteoblast surface and larger bone volume in the implanted area of calcium-deficient HA than those of stoichiometric HA suggested that osteoclastic resorption of calcium-deficient HA affected osteogenesis in that area. To analyze the direct contribution of osteoclasts to osteogenesis, C2C12 multipotent myoblastic cells, which have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 2, were cultured with supernatants of osteoclasts cultured on calcium-deficient HA, stoichiometric HA, beta-tricalcium phosphate disks or plastic dishes, or bone marrow macrophages cultured on plastic dishes. Supernatants of osteoclasts but not bone marrow macrophages stimulated the expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin in C2C12 cells in concert with bone morphogenetic protein 2. The expression of alkaline phosphatase was stimulated with supernatants of osteoclasts cultured on ceramic disks. These results suggested that osteoclasts produced certain soluble factors which stimulated osteoblastic differentiation and they were thought to be associated with the induction of a larger osteoblast surface and bone volume in the animals implanted with calcium-deficient HA granules

    Paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic records through Marine Isotope Stage 19 at the Chiba composite section, central Japan: A key reference for the EarlyeMiddle Pleistocene Subseries boundary

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    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19 is an important analogue for the present interglacial because of its similar orbital configuration, especially the phasing of the obliquity maximum to precession minimum. However, sedimentary records suitable for capturing both terrestrial and marine environmental changes are limited, and thus the climatic forcing mechanisms for MIS 19 are still largely unknown. The Chiba composite section, east-central Japanese archipelago, is a continuous and expanded marine sedimentary succession well suited to capture terrestrial and marine environmental changes through MIS 19. In this study, a detailed oxygen isotope chronology is established from late MIS 20 to early MIS 18, supported by a U-Pb zircon age and the presence of the Matuyama–Brunhes boundary. New pollen, marine microfossil, and planktonic foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca paleotemperature records reveal the complex interplay of climatic influences. Our pollen data suggest that the duration of full interglacial conditions during MIS 19 extends from 785.0 to 775.1 ka (9.9 kyr), which offers an important natural baseline in predicting the duration of the present interglacial. A Younger Dryas-type cooling event is present during Termination IX, suggesting that such events are linked to this orbital configuration. Millennial- to multi-millennial-scale variations in our δ18O and Mg/Ca records imply that the Subarctic Front fluctuated in the northwestern Pacific Ocean during late MIS 19, probably in response to East Asian winter monsoon variability. The climatic setting at this time appears to be related to less severe summer insolation minima at 65˚N and/or high winter insolation at 50˚N. Our records do not support a recently hypothesized direct coupling between variations in the geomagnetic field intensity and global/regional climate change. Our highly resolved paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic records, coupled with a well-defined Matuyama–Brunhes boundary (772.9 ka; duration 1.9 kyr), establish the Chiba composite section as an exceptional climatic and chronological reference section for the Early–Middle Pleistocene boundary.ArticleQuaternary Science Reviews 191: 406-430(2018)journal articl

    International Pellet Watch: global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in coastal waters. 1. Initial phase data on PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs

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    Samples of polyethylene pellets were collected at 30 beaches from 17 countries and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. PCB concentrations in the pellets were highest on US coasts, followed by western Europe and Japan, and were lower in tropical Asia, southern Africa and Australia. This spatial pattern reflected regional differences in the usage of PCBs and was positively correlated with data from Mussel Watch, another monitoring approach. DDTs showed high concentrations on the US west coast and in Vietnam. In Vietnam, DDT was predominant over its metabolites (DDE and DDD), suggesting the principal source may be current usage of the pesticide for malaria control. High concentrations of pesticide HCHs were detected in the pellets from southern Africa, suggesting current usage of the pesticides in southern Africa. This study demonstrates the utility and feasibility of the International Pellet Watch approach to monitor POPs at a global scale

    Amplified EPOR/JAK2 Genes Define a Unique Subtype of Acute Erythroid Leukemia

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    ゲノム解析から急性赤白血病の変異プロファイルと治療標的を解明 --特定の遺伝子変異群の組み合わせと、特徴となる遺伝子の増幅が鍵--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2022-08-05.Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) is a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by prominent erythroid proliferation whose molecular basis is poorly understood. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of erythroid proliferation, we analyzed 121 AEL using whole-genome/exome and/or targeted-capture sequencing, together with transcriptome analysis of 21 AEL samples. Combining publicly available sequencing data, we found a high frequency of gains/amplifications involving EPOR/JAK2 in TP53-mutated cases, particularly those having >80% erythroblasts designated as pure erythroid leukemia (10/13). These cases were frequently accompanied by gains/amplifications of ERG/ETS2 and associated with a very poor prognosis, even compared with other TP53-mutated AEL. In addition to activation of the STAT5 pathway, a common feature across all AEL cases, these AEL cases exhibited enhanced cell proliferation and heme metabolism and often showed high sensitivity to ruxolitinib in vitro and in xenograft models, highlighting a potential role of JAK2 inhibition in therapeutics of AEL

    Airway Obstruction due to Hematoma Following Internal Jugular vein Cannulation

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    A patient developed neck swelling and acute airway obstruction following an internal jugular vein cannulation. During laryngoscopy, glottic exposure was impossible because of a hematoma-induced anatomical distortion of standard laryngeal landmarks. Finally, a nasotracheal tube was intubated into the trachea fibreoptically. This life-threatening complication is rare, possible origin and mechanism for the sudden hematoma are discussed, as well as the airway management

    BioHackathon series in 2011 and 2012: penetration of ontology and linked data in life science domains

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    The application of semantic technologies to the integration of biological data and the interoperability of bioinformatics analysis and visualization tools has been the common theme of a series of annual BioHackathons hosted in Japan for the past five years. Here we provide a review of the activities and outcomes from the BioHackathons held in 2011 in Kyoto and 2012 in Toyama. In order to efficiently implement semantic technologies in the life sciences, participants formed various sub-groups and worked on the following topics: Resource Description Framework (RDF) models for specific domains, text mining of the literature, ontology development, essential metadata for biological databases, platforms to enable efficient Semantic Web technology development and interoperability, and the development of applications for Semantic Web data. In this review, we briefly introduce the themes covered by these sub-groups. The observations made, conclusions drawn, and software development projects that emerged from these activities are discussed


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