14,178 research outputs found

    Irregular conformal blocks, with an application to the fifth and fourth Painlev\'e equations

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    We develop the theory of irregular conformal blocks of the Virasoro algebra. In previous studies, expansions of irregular conformal blocks at regular singular points were obtained as degeneration limits of regular conformal blocks; however, such expansions at irregular singular points were not clearly understood. This is because precise definitions of irregular vertex operators had not been provided previously. In this paper, we present precise definitions of irregular vertex operators of two types and we prove that one of our vertex operators exists uniquely. Then, we define irregular conformal blocks with at most two irregular singular points as expectation values of given irregular vertex operators. Our definitions provide an understanding of expansions of irregular conformal blocks and enable us to obtain expansions at irregular singular points. As an application, we propose conjectural formulas of series expansions of the tau functions of the fifth and fourth Painlev\'e equations, using expansions of irregular conformal blocks at an irregular singular point.Comment: 26 page

    Distribution of TT virus (TTV), TTV-like minivirus, and related viruses in humans and nonhuman primates

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    AbstractTT virus (TTV) and TTV-like minivirus (TLMV) are small DNA viruses with single-stranded, closed circular, antisense genomes infecting man. Despite their extreme sequence heterogeneity (>50%), a highly conserved region in the untranslated region (UTR) allows both viruses to be amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). TTV/TLMV infection was detected in 88 of 100 human plasma samples; amplified sequences were differentiated into TTV and TLMV by analysis of melting profiles, showing that both viruses were similarly prevalent. PCR with UTR primers also detected frequent infection with TTV/TLMV-related viruses in a wide range of apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons) and African monkey species (mangabeys, drills, mandrills). These findings support the hypothesis for the co-evolution of TTV-like viruses with their hosts over the period of primate speciation, potentially analogous to the evolution of primate herpesviruses

    Painleve equations from Darboux chains - Part 1: P3-P5

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    We show that the Painleve equations P3-P5 can be derived (in a unified way) from a periodic sequence of Darboux transformations for a Schrodinger problem with quadratic eigenvalue dependency. The general problem naturally divides into three different branches, each described by an infinite chain of equations. The Painleve equations are obtained by closing the chain periodically at the lowest nontrivial level(s). The chains provide ``symmetric forms'' for the Painleve equations, from which Hirota bilinear forms and Lax pairs are derived. In this paper (Part 1) we analyze in detail the cases P3-P5, while P6 will be studied in Part 2.Comment: 23 pages, 1 reference added + minor change

    A generalization of determinant formulas for the solutions of Painlev\'e II and XXXIV equations

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    A generalization of determinant formulas for the classical solutions of Painlev\'e XXXIV and Painlev\'e II equations are constructed using the technique of Darboux transformation and Hirota's bilinear formalism. It is shown that the solutions admit determinant formulas even for the transcendental case.Comment: 20 pages, LaTeX 2.09(IOP style), submitted to J. Phys.

    Three-Body-Cluster Effects on Lambda Single-Particle Energies in _{Lambda}^{17}O and_{Lambda}^{41}Ca

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    A method for a microscopic description of Lambda hypernuclei is formulated in the framework of the unitary-model-operator approach. A unitarily transformed hamiltonian is introduced and given in a cluster expansion form. The structure of three-body-cluster terms are discussed especially on the Lambda single-particle energy. The Lambda single-particle energies including the three-body-cluster contributions are calculated for the 0s_{1/2}, 0p_{3/2} and 0p_{1/2} states in_{Lambda}^{17}O, and for the 0s_{1/2}, 0p_{3/2}, 0p_{1/2}, 0d_{5/2}, 0d_{3/2} and 1s_{1/2} states in_{Lambda}^{41}Ca, using the Nijmegen soft-core (NSC), NSC97a-f, the Juelich A (J A) and J B hyperon-nucleon interactions. It is indicated that the three-body-cluster terms bring about sizable effects in the magnitudes of the Lambda single-particle energies, but hardly affect the Lambda spin-orbit splittings.Comment: LaTeX 19 pages including 7 figures, ptptex.sty is use

    Shell structures in oxygen isotopes described with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions

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    Shell structures in the N\simeq Z nucleus ^{17}O and the neutron-rich oxygen isotopes ^{23}O and ^{25}O are microscopically described by calculating single-particle energies with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions within the framework of the unitary-model-operator approach. It is found that the effect of three-body cluster terms on the single-particle energy is more important in ^{23}O and ^{25}O than ^{17}O.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure, Talk at the International Symposium on "A New Era of Nuclear Structure Physics (NENS03)", 19-22 Nov. 2003, Niigata, Japa

    Ground-state and single-particle energies of nuclei around ^{16}O, ^{40}Ca, and ^{56}Ni from realistic nucleon-nucleon forces

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    We perform ab initio calculations for nuclei around ^{16}O, ^{40}Ca, and ^{56}Ni using realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. In particular, ^{56}Ni is computed as the heaviest nucleus in this kind of ab initio calculation. Ground-state and single-particle energies including three-body-cluster effects are obtained within the framework of the unitary-model-operator approach. It is shown that the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential gives quite good results close to the experimental values for all nuclei in the present work.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures; accepted for publication in Physical Review Letter

    Anomalous magnetization process in frustrated spin ladders

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    We study, at T=0, the anomalies in the magnetization curve of the S=1 two-leg ladder with frustrated interactions. We focus mainly on the existence of the M=\Ms/2 plateau, where \Ms is the saturation magnetization. We use analytical methods (degenerate perturbation theory and non-Abelian bosonization) as well as numerical methods (level spectroscopy and density matrix renormalization group), which lead to the consistent conclusion with each other. We also touch on the M=\Ms/4 and M=(3/4)\Ms plateaux and cusps.Comment: 4 pages, 7 figures (embedded), Conference paper (Highly Frustrated Magnetism 2003, 26-30th August 2003, Grenoble, France
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