37 research outputs found

    From Localization to Glocalization: Contriving Korean Pop Culture to Meet Glocal Demands

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    Hallyu (the Korean Wave) has been around the world since the late 1990s. Over the period of twenty years, Hallyu has evolved from a regional entertainment pop to a global cultural content. The evolution of Hallyu, like any other evolutions, has involved a long process of localization and globalization. Both K-pop and K-dramas, the two major pillars of the Hallyu revolution, are foreign imports. K-pop has mostly been influenced by European and American dance music since the early 1990s, whereas K-dramas have been heavily influenced by Japanese trendy TV dramas in the past, particularly during the 1980s. However, the localization of K-pop and K-dramas by Korean artists, writers, and producers demonstrated their adept rearrangement skills that ushered in a new era of a domestic pop culture boom that had been on the verge of destruction due to Hollywood films, Japanese pop culture contents, and the financial crisis that swept through the nation since 1997. K-pop and K-dramas have successfully gained domestic fame to propagate its commercial influence in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and North America. The collection of papers gathered in this Forum Kritika on Hallyu Studies presents their analyses on the process of localizing and globalizing Hallyu, or what I call glocalization. Briefly, glocalization denotes a successful localization of foreign products so much so that original inventors of the products want to import the local variations instead of their originals. Americans buying a massive number of Japanese cars, for example, is a good case of glocalizaiton. Hallyu’s glocalization success indicates that the domestic Korean demand for high quality pop culture has induced new types of competition that required importing global pop content, simultaneously requiring them to contrive to produce better quality pop content than the originals for re-exporting to foreign markets, given the enormous investments that cannot be recouped from a small Korean market

    K-pop in Korea: How the Pop Music Industry is Changing a Post-Developmental Society

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    Korean popular songs, or kayo, are evolving from a musical genre created and performed only by Koreans into K-pop, a global musical genre produced and enjoyed by Koreans and those of other nationalities. This new development has revolutionized the perception of the popular music industry in Korea’s post-developmental society, as Korean children dream of becoming K-pop idols rather than entering traditionally esteemed careers in politics, medicine, or academia. The Korean government is also actively promoting Hallyu and K-pop, as though they constitute new export industries that could feed the entire nation in the twenty-first century. While the K-pop revolution has a lot to do with YouTube and other digital means of distributing music on a global scale, Korean television stations are now eager to tap into the booming market by showcasing live K-pop auditions in order to circumvent declining television loyalty among K-pop fans, who prefer watching music videos on YouTube. K-pop in Korea therefore illustrates three important aspects of social change: changes in social perceptions of the popular music industry, massive government support, and television stations actively recruiting new K-pop stars. All three aspects of social change reinforce one another and fuel the aspirations of young Koreans to become the next K-pop idols. Keywords: South Korea, pop culture, K-pop, social change, mass media Links to YouTube videos referenced in this article: Lee Mi-Ja's "Tongbaek Agassi" (1964)   Shin Joong-Hyun’s "Miin" (1974

    Low-magnetic-field control of dielectric constant at room temperature realized in Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22

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    We show that room temperature resistivity of Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 single crystals increases by more than three orders of magnitude upon being subjected to optimized heat treatments. The increase in the resistivity allows the determination of magnetic field (H)-induced ferroelectric phase boundaries up to 310 K through the measurements of dielectric constant at a frequency of 10 MHz. Between 280 and 310 K, the dielectric constant curve shows a peak centered at zero magnetic field and thereafter decreases monotonically up to 0.1 T, exhibiting a magnetodielectric effect of 1.1%. This effect is ascribed to the realization of magnetic field-induced ferroelectricity at an H value of less than 0.1 T near room temperature. Comparison between electric and magnetic phase diagrams in wide temperature- and field-windows suggests that the magnetic field for inducing ferroelectricity has decreased near its helical spin ordering temperature around 315 K due to the reduction of spin anisotropy in Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22

    Vortex-glass phase transition and superconductivity in an under- doped (Ba,K)Fe2As2 single crystal

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    Measurements of magnetotransport and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics up to 9 T were used to investigate the vortex phase diagram of an under-doped Measurements of magnetotransport and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics up to 9 T were used to investigate the vortex phase diagram of an under-doped (Ba,K)Fe2As2 single crystal with Tc=26.2 K. It is found that the anisotropy ratio of the upper critical field Hc2 decreases from 4 to 2.8 with decreasing temperature from Tc to 24.8 K. Consistent with the vortex-glass theory, the I-V curves measured at H=9 T can be well scaled with the vortex-glass transition temperature of Tg=20.7 K and critical exponents z=4.1 and v=1. Analyses in different magnetic fields produced almost identical critical exponent values, with some variation in Tg, corroborating the existence of the vortex-glass transition in this under-doped (Ba,K)Fe2As2 single crystal up to 9 T. A vortex phase diagram is presented, based on the evolution of Tg and Hc2 with magnetic field.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figures. accepted in Phys. Rev.

    Reference Dependent Preference and Fan Responses: A Text Analysis of YouTube Comments on K-League Highlights

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    PURPOSE This study examined whether K-league fans’ responses to game outcomes align with reference-dependent preference and loss aversion principles. METHODS We collected user comments from the 2023 K-league game highlights videos on YouTube. We identified each user’s supporting team and excluded neutral fans’ comments. Sentiment analysis using KoBERT was applied, and estimated sentiment scores served as dependent variables. We performed panel regression to test whether unexpected wins and losses generate positive and negative comments. RESULTS First, an unexpected win generates more positive comments, and an unexpected loss generates more negative comments; a reference-dependent preference exists. Second, the difference between the coefficient on upset win and the absolute value of the coefficient on upset loss is not statistically different; loss aversion does not exist. CONCLUSIONS The findings derive a deeper understanding of sports viewership and explain the difference between domestic and overseas sports fans. Also, the findings provide insights into the domestic professional sports business

    Realization of giant magnetoelectricity in helimagnets

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    We show that low field magnetoelectric (ME) properties of helimagnets Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe1-xAlx)12O22 can be efficiently tailored by Al-substitution level. As x increases, the critical magnetic field for switching electric polarization is systematically reduced from ~1 T down to ~1 mT, and the ME susceptibility is greatly enhanced to reach a giant value of 2.0 x 10^4 ps/m at an optimum x = 0.08. We find that control of nontrivial orbital moment in the octahedral Fe sites through the Al-substitution is crucial for fine tuning of magnetic anisotropy and obtaining the conspicuously improved ME characteristics

    Electric polarization enhancement in multiferroic CoCr2O4 crystals with Cr-site mixing

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    Single crystals of multiferroic cobalt chromite Co (Cr2-x Cox) O4 have been grown via several methods to have different Co3+ doping levels (x=0.0, 0.14, and 0.18). Under magnetic fields, all the crystals display electric polarization reversal below their spiral spin ordering temperatures. We find that both saturated electric polarization and magnetization under magnetic fields increase significantly with the increase in x. This result can be qualitatively explained by a broken balance between at least two electric polarization contributions existing in CoCr2 O4 and is expected to be useful in tailoring electric polarization in similar kinds of multiferroics. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.open222

    Electric field control of nonvolatile four-state magnetization at room temperature

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    We find the realization of large converse magnetoelectric (ME) effects at room temperature in a multiferroic hexaferrite Ba0.52_{0.52}Sr2.48_{2.48}Co2_{2}Fe24_{24}O41_{41} single crystal, in which rapid change of electric polarization in low magnetic fields (about 5 mT) is coined to a large ME susceptibility of 3200 ps/m. The modulation of magnetization then reaches up to 0.62 μ\muB_{B}/f.u. in an electric field of 1.14 MV/m. We find further that four ME states induced by different ME poling exhibit unique, nonvolatile magnetization versus electric field curves, which can be approximately described by an effective free energy with a distinct set of ME coefficients
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