861 research outputs found

    What Accuracy Could Not Be

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    Two different programs are in the business of explicating accuracy—the truthlikeness program and the epistemic utility program. Both assume that truth is the goal of inquiry, and that among inquiries that fall short of realizing the goal some get closer to it than others. TL theorists have been searching for an account of the accuracy of propositions. Epistemic utility theorists have been searching for an account of the accuracy of credal states. Both assume we can make cognitive progress in an inquiry even while falling short of the target. I show that the prospects for combining these two programs are bleak. A core accuracy principle, Proximity, that is universally embraced within the Truthlikeness program turns out to be incompatible with a central principle within the Epistemic Utility program, namely Propriety

    Normative Judgment and Rational Requirements: A Reply to Ridge

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    I examine and rebut Ridge’s two arguments for Capacity Judgment Internalism (simply qua their particular character and content, first person normative judgments are necessarily capable of motivating without the help of any independent desire). First, the rejection of the possibility of anormativism (sec. 2), second, an argument from the rational requirement to intend to do as one judges that one ought to do (sec. 3). I conclude with a few remarks about the nature of this requirement and about verdicts of akrasia. (sec. 4)

    The Relationship of Religion and the Ethnic Nationalism in Bosnia-Herzegovina

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    What Accuracy Could Not Be

    Get PDF
    Two different programs are in the business of explicating accuracy—the truthlikeness program and the epistemic utility program. Both assume that truth is the goal of inquiry, and that among inquiries that fall short of realizing the goal some get closer to it than others. TL theorists have been searching for an account of the accuracy of propositions. Epistemic utility theorists have been searching for an account of the accuracy of credal states. Both assume we can make cognitive progress in an inquiry even while falling short of the target. I show that the prospects for combining these two programs are bleak. A core accuracy principle, Proximity, that is universally embraced within the Truthlikeness program turns out to be incompatible with a central principle within the Epistemic Utility program, namely Propriety

    The Moral Case for the Legislation of Voluntary Euthanasia

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    If a person is suffering from some illness or disability and wishes to end their We the lawought to facilitate rather than frustrate that choice argues Graham Oddie in this article. Hepoints out the inconsistencies in current medical practice, and the gross disparity between the practice and the letter of the law. In dismissing many of the commonly raised objections to calls for reform of the law permitting euthanasia he makes a strong case for consistency in our approach to the right to die and patient autonomy

    Fighting Speech with Speech: Combating Abuses of Section 527 Political Organizations with More Speech, Not Additional Regulation

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    “I Don’t Believe the World Is Tilted”: Emotion, Struggle, and Relationship in Making Meaning With Texts

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    The purpose of this study was to understand how the social and cultural practices of classroom literacy instruction afforded students opportunities to make meaning with texts. Research was conducted from a sociocultural perspective that focused on students as participants in social learning, in a context of interactive relations. This study was responsive to contemporary developments of the sociocultural tradition, recognizing the importance of emotion and other subjective means for constructing understanding. Two classes of a turnaround school, 18 Second-Grade students and 20 Third-Grade students, were observed as they participated in Interactive Read Aloud and Guided Reading over a period of nine weeks. In both classes 50% of the students were English Language Learners. All instruction was in English and was delivered in hyflex format. Classroom discourse was analyzed using sociocultural concepts, followed by microanalysis that showed communication purposes and patterns of interaction. Students were found to draw upon multiple resources in making meaning: personal subjective experience, emotion, and interactions with peers and teachers in the social context. The findings show the importance of bringing all students into the shared process of making meaning and offer a new perspective on “failing” students as active makers of meaning

    Egg sex ratio and paternal traits: using within-individual comparisons

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    Empirical studies of sex ratios in birds have been limited due to difficulties in determining offspring sex. Since molecular sexing techniques removed this constraint, the last 5 years has seen a great increase in studies of clutch sex ratio manipulation by female birds. Typically these studies investigate variation in clutch sex ratios across individuals in relation to environmental characteristics or parental traits, and often they find no relationships. In this study we also found that clutch sex ratios did not vary in relation to a number of biological and environmental factors for 238 great tit Parus major nests. However, interesting sex ratio biases were revealed when variation in clutch sex ratios was analyzed within individual females breeding in successive years. There was a significant positive relationship between the change in sex ratio of a female's clutch from one year to the next and the relative body condition of her partner. Females mating with males of higher body condition in year x + 1 produced relatively male-biased sex ratios, and the opposite was true for females mated with lower condition males. Within-individual analysis also allowed investigations of sex ratio in relation to partner change. There was no change in sex ratios of females pairing with the same male; however, females pairing with a new male produced clutches significantly more female biased. Comparisons of clutch sex ratios within individuals may be a powerful method for detecting sex ratio variation, and perhaps female birds may indeed manipulate egg sex but require personal contextual experience for such decision
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