67 research outputs found

    Synthetic aperture radar/LANDSAT MSS image registration

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    Algorithms and procedures necessary to merge aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery were determined. The design of a SAR/LANDSAT data merging system was developed. Aircraft SAR images were registered to the corresponding LANDSAT MSS scenes and were the subject of experimental investigations. Results indicate that the registration of SAR imagery with LANDSAT MSS imagery is feasible from a technical viewpoint, and useful from an information-content viewpoint

    Space applications instrumentation systems

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    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system

    The Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE)

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    SWADE was developed to study the dynamics of the wave field development in the open ocean with the following specific objectives: (1) to understand the development of the wave directional spectrum under various conditions; (2) to determine the effect of waves on the air/sea transfers of momentum, heat, and mass; (3) to determine breaking distributions as a function of sea state, wind, and boundary stability; and (4) to provide data and analyses for ERS-1 validation. The experiment is designed for the winter of 1990 to 1991. Four buoys will be deployed for 6 months starting October 1990 and ending March 1991. During that time period, three intensive periods of 2 weeks duration each will be selected for frequent aircraft flights for wave data collection to satisfy scientific studies, as well as ERS-1 validation needs

    COMPUTER-CONTROLLED GAS CHROMATOGRAPH CAPABLE OF ''REAL-TIME'' READOUT OF HIGH-PRECISION DATA.

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    A gas chromatograph has been assembled which provides computer control of sample injection, column temperature, and flow rate, plus direct computer readout of inlet pressure, mass flow rate, and detector response. Data processing yields, in real-time, a standard deviation of less than 0.05% in retention time, which is comparable to previous results obtained using an off-line computer. However, corrected retention volumes determined in real-time had a standard deviation of about 0.4% which reflected primarily the uncertainty in flow measurement

    Plant damage in urban agroecosystems varies with local and landscape factors

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    Biotic and abiotic factors at local to landscape scales influence insect pest and disease dynamics in agricultural systems. However, relative to studies focused on the importance of these drivers of crop plant damage in rural agricultural systems, few studies investigate plant damage from herbivore insects and plant diseases in urban agroecosystems, and consequently, most urban farmers lack knowledge on crop protection tactics. Here we use three common crop species within urban agroecosystems (community gardens) distributed across an urban landscape as a model system to ask how local, landscape, and microclimate factors relate to herbivore and disease plant damage. We hypothesized that plant damage would be lower in gardens with greater local vegetation complexity, landscapeā€scale complexity, and less variable temperatures, but that the importance of factors is speciesā€ and damageā€specific. By measuring Brassica, cucurbit, and tomato insect pest and disease damage across the growing season, we confirmed that the importance of factors varies with crop species and by damage type. Both local complexity factors (e.g., number of trees and shrubs) and landscape complexity (percent natural cover in the landscape) relate to lower incidence of herbivore and disease damage on some crops, supporting our prediction that habitat heterogeneity at both local and landscape scales lowers plant damage. Greater temperature variability related to higher disease damage on tomatoes linking microclimate factors to disease prevalence. Yet, local complexity factors also related to higher incidence of plant damage for other crop species, indicating variable speciesā€level impacts of local management factors on plant damage. By measuring the abundance of fungusā€feeding lady beetles (Psyllobora) on cucurbits, we confirmed a strong association between natural enemies and powdery mildew. We provide a case study on how changes in local to landscapeā€scale factors relate to plant damage in urban agroecosystems and suggest how urban farmers and gardeners can apply this ecological knowledge to improve sustainable urban food production.TU Berlin, Open-Access-Mittel - 202

    Green and animal manure use in organic field crop systems

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    Dual-use cover/green manure (CGM) crops and animal manure are used to supply nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to organically grown field crops. A comprehensive review of previous research was conducted to identify how CGM crops and animal manure have been used to meet N and P needs of organic field crops, and to identify knowledge gaps to direct future research efforts. Results indicate that: (a) CGM crops are used to provide N to subsequent cash crops in rotations; (b) CGM-supplied N generally can meet field crop needs in warm, humid regions but is insufficient for organic grain crops grown in cool and sub-humid regions; (c) adoption of conservation tillage practices can create or exacerbate N deficiencies; (d) excess N and P can result where animal manures are accessible if application rates are not carefully managed; and (e) integrating animal grazing into organic field crop systems has potential benefits but is generally not practiced. Work is needed to better understand the mechanisms governing the release of N by CGM crops to subsequent cash crops, and the legacy effects of animal manure applications in cool and sub-humid regions. The benefits and synergies that can occur by combining targeted animal grazing and CGMs on soil N, P, and other nutrients should be investigated. Improved communication and networking among researchers can aid efforts to solve soil fertility challenges faced by organic farmers when growing field crops in North America and elsewhere
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