3,652 research outputs found

    On the coupling between an ideal fluid and immersed particles

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    In this paper we use Lagrange-Poincare reduction to understand the coupling between a fluid and a set of Lagrangian particles that are supposed to simulate it. In particular, we reinterpret the work of Cendra et al. by substituting velocity interpolation from particle velocities for their principal connection. The consequence of writing evolution equations in terms of interpolation is two-fold. First, it gives estimates on the error incurred when interpolation is used to derive the evolution of the system. Second, this form of the equations of motion can inspire a family of particle and hybrid particle-spectral methods where the error analysis is "built-in". We also discuss the influence of other parameters attached to the particles, such as shape, orientation, or higher-order deformations, and how they can help with conservation of momenta in the sense of Kelvin's circulation theorem.Comment: to appear in Physica D, comments and questions welcom

    Characters of graded parafermion conformal field theory

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    The graded parafermion conformal field theory at level k is a close cousin of the much-studied Z_k parafermion model. Three character formulas for the graded parafermion theory are presented, one bosonic, one fermionic (both previously known) and one of spinon type (which is new). The main result of this paper is a proof of the equivalence of these three forms using q-series methods combined with the combinatorics of lattice paths. The pivotal step in our approach is the observation that the graded parafermion theory -- which is equivalent to the coset osp(1,2)_k/ u(1) -- can be factored as (osp(1,2)_k/ su(2)_k) x (su(2)_k/ u(1)), with the two cosets on the right equivalent to the minimal model M(k+2,2k+3) and the Z_k parafermion model, respectively. This factorisation allows for a new combinatorial description of the graded parafermion characters in terms of the one-dimensional configuration sums of the (k+1)-state Andrews--Baxter--Forrester model.Comment: 36 page

    Large-eddy simulation of the flow in a lid-driven cubical cavity

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    Large-eddy simulations of the turbulent flow in a lid-driven cubical cavity have been carried out at a Reynolds number of 12000 using spectral element methods. Two distinct subgrid-scales models, namely a dynamic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic mixed model, have been both implemented and used to perform long-lasting simulations required by the relevant time scales of the flow. All filtering levels make use of explicit filters applied in the physical space (on an element-by-element approach) and spectral (modal) spaces. The two subgrid-scales models are validated and compared to available experimental and numerical reference results, showing very good agreement. Specific features of lid-driven cavity flow in the turbulent regime, such as inhomogeneity of turbulence, turbulence production near the downstream corner eddy, small-scales localization and helical properties are investigated and discussed in the large-eddy simulation framework. Time histories of quantities such as the total energy, total turbulent kinetic energy or helicity exhibit different evolutions but only after a relatively long transient period. However, the average values remain extremely close

    Trapping in the random conductance model

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    We consider random walks on Zd\Z^d among nearest-neighbor random conductances which are i.i.d., positive, bounded uniformly from above but whose support extends all the way to zero. Our focus is on the detailed properties of the paths of the random walk conditioned to return back to the starting point at time 2n2n. We show that in the situations when the heat kernel exhibits subdiffusive decay --- which is known to occur in dimensions d≥4d\ge4 --- the walk gets trapped for a time of order nn in a small spatial region. This shows that the strategy used earlier to infer subdiffusive lower bounds on the heat kernel in specific examples is in fact dominant. In addition, we settle a conjecture concerning the worst possible subdiffusive decay in four dimensions.Comment: 21 pages, version to appear in J. Statist. Phy

    New path description for the M(k+1,2k+3) models and the dual Z_k graded parafermions

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    We present a new path description for the states of the non-unitary M(k+1,2k+3) models. This description differs from the one induced by the Forrester-Baxter solution, in terms of configuration sums, of their restricted-solid-on-solid model. The proposed path representation is actually very similar to the one underlying the unitary minimal models M(k+1,k+2), with an analogous Fermi-gas interpretation. This interpretation leads to fermionic expressions for the finitized M(k+1,2k+3) characters, whose infinite-length limit represent new fermionic characters for the irreducible modules. The M(k+1,2k+3) models are also shown to be related to the Z_k graded parafermions via a (q to 1/q) duality transformation.Comment: 43 pages (minor typo corrected and minor rewording in the introduction

    Particles in RSOS paths

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    We introduce a new representation of the paths of the Forrester-Baxter RSOS models which represents the states of the irreducible modules of the minimal models M(p',p). This representation is obtained by transforming the RSOS paths, for the cases p> 2p'-2, to new paths for which horizontal edges are allowed at certain heights. These new paths are much simpler in that their weight is nothing but the sum of the position of the peaks. This description paves the way for the interpretation of the RSOS paths in terms of fermi-type charged particles out of which the fermionic characters could be obtained constructively. The derivation of the fermionic character for p'=2 and p=kp'+/- 1 is outlined. Finally, the particles of the RSOS paths are put in relation with the kinks and the breathers of the restricted sine-Gordon model.Comment: 15 pages, few typos corrected, version publishe
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