115 research outputs found

    Quorum Sensing in the Context of Food Microbiology

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    Food spoilage may be defined as a process that renders a product undesirable or unacceptable for consumption and is the outcome of the biochemical activity of a microbial community that eventually dominates according to the prevailing ecological determinants. Although limited information are reported, this activity has been attributed to quorum sensing (QS). Consequently, the potential role of cell-to-cell communication in food spoilage and food safety should be more extensively elucidated. Such information would be helpful in designing approaches for manipulating these communication systems, thereby reducing or preventing, for instance, spoilage reactions or even controlling the expression of virulence factors. Due to the many reports in the literature on the fundamental features of QS, e.g., chemistry and definitions of QS compounds, in this minireview, we only allude to the types and chemistry of QS signaling molecules per se and to the (bioassay-based) methods of their detection and quantification, avoiding extensive documentation. Conversely, we attempt to provide insights into (i) the role of QS in food spoilage, (ii) the factors that may quench the activity of QS in foods and review the potential QS inhibitors that might “mislead” the bacterial coordination of spoilage activities and thus may be used as biopreservatives, and (iii) the future experimental approaches that need to be undertaken in order to explore the “gray” or “black” areas of QS, increase our understanding of how QS affects microbial behavior in foods, and assist in finding answers as to how we can exploit QS for the benefit of food preservation and food safety

    Assessment of the effect of a Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium culture supernatant on the single-cell lag time of foodborne pathogens

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    The objective of this study was the in vitro evaluation of the effect of a cell-free microbial supernatant, produced by a luxS-positive Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium strain, on the single-cell growth kinetic behavior of two strains of S. enterica (serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium) and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. The single-cell lag time (λ) of the pathogens was estimated in the absence and presence (20% v/v) of microbial supernatant based on optical density measurements. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the tested microbial supernatant had a strain-specific effect on the single-cell λ and its variability. Although the mean λ values were similar in the absence and presence of microbial supernatant in the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction and increase in the mean value of this parameter in the presence of microbial supernatant were observed for Salmonella Typhimurium and St. aureus, respectively. With regard to the effect of the tested microbial supernatant on the single-cell variability of λ, similar λ distributions were obtained in its absence and presence for S. Enteritidis, while considerable differences were noted for the other two tested organisms; the coefficient of variation of λ in the absence and presence of microbial supernatant was 41.6 and 69.8% for S. Typhimurium, respectively, with the corresponding values for St. aureus being 74.0 and 56.9%. As demonstrated by the results of bioassays, the tested microbial supernatant exhibited autoinducer-2 activity, indicating a potential association of such quorum sensing compounds with the observed effects. Although preliminary in nature, the collected data provide a good basis for future research on the role of quorum sensing in the single-cell growth behavior of foodborne pathogens

    Ability of Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus to develop biofilm community on stainless steel and colonize rocket tissue

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    In the present study, the ability of S. Typhimurium (CDC 6516-60) and S. aureus strain COL (MRSA) to both develop a biofilm community on stainless steel (SS) and colonize rocket tissue was investigated (incubation at 20°C for 144 h). In parallel, the planktonic growth of these pathogens in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth, was followed

    Single-cell growth kinetic behavior of pathogenic bacteria in the presence of microbial supernatants containing autoinducer-2 signal compounds

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    The findings of this study constitute preliminary data on the role of QS compounds on the single-cell growth behavior of important pathogens, knowledge that maybe useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying their behavior as well as in developing strategies for their control in situ

    Ability of Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus to develop biofilm community on stainless steel and colonize rocket tissue

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    Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus are important human pathogens capable of causing a diverse array of diseases, while international organization (EFSA, FAO/WHO) report that these are among the most related microorganisms for foodborne diseases. The ability of both species to form biofilm, together with the increased number of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains, including ones resistant to methicillin (MRSA), are of special interest for researchers. In addition, the consumption of raw plant tissues, have been recently associated with foodborne diseases outbreaks due to cross contamination. Obviously, the ability of pathogenic strains of these species to survive on either abiotic or plant surfaces needs to be further studied

    Targeted gene expression study of Salmonella enterica during biofilm formation on rocket leaves

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    In the present study, the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to form biofilm community on rocket leaves and rocket extract at 10 C and 20 C was investigated. This goal was achieved with the study of expression of genes associated with biofilm formation and other functional roles. The obtained results showed that Salmonella growth was inhibited when cultured in rocket extract (liquid and solid state) and when grew directly to rocket leaves. The observed inhibition might be attributed to nutrient starvation to the specific growth media because of plant leaves's variability, cell physiology and antimicrobial compounds of rocket. In addition, gene expression study using Real-Time PCR showed that biofilm was formatted on solid media, while the entrance and adhesion of the microorganism within the plant held more strongly through the stomata of the plant leaves. Furthermore, genes associated with managing stress situations were overexpressed at 20 C. From these results, it is indicated that further studies are needed to better determine the survival and/or growth of the pathogen as “real” biofilm cells on plants. In addition, the study on development and gene expression of biofilm cells is necessary in order to eliminate the specific pathogen and reduce the food-borne diseases it causes

    Metabolomic analysis of salmonella enterica cells in vitro and in situ

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    In the present study a comparison of metabolomics, on laboratory medium, on rocket extract, of S. Tymphimurium (ST) CDC 6516-60, as well as on the developed biofilm on rocket tissue was investigated

    Population and resistance patterns of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms to sublethal chemical disinfection under mono-and dual-species multi-strain conditions

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    To evaluate the possible influence of bacterial interactions encountered in mono- and dual-species multi-strain biofilms of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) on: (i) the ability of strains to develop biofilm, and (ii) their subsequent resistance to sublethal chemical disinfection

    Novel approaches for food safety management and communication

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    The current safety and quality controls in the food chain are lacking or inadequately applied and fail to prevent microbial and/or chemical contamination of food products, which leads to reduced confidence among consumers. On the other hand to meet market demands food business operators (producers, retailers, resellers) and regulators need to develop and apply structured quality and safety assurance systems based on thorough risk analysis and prevention, through monitoring, recording and controlling of critical parameters covering the entire product's life cycle. However the production, supply, and processing sectors of the food chain are fragmented and this lack of cohesion results in a failure to adopt new and innovative technologies, products and processes. The potential of using information technologies, for example, data storage, communication, cloud, in tandem with data science, for example, data mining, pattern recognition, uncertainty modelling, artificial intelligence, etc., through the whole food chain including processing within the food industry, retailers and even consumers, will provide stakeholders with novel tools regarding the implementation of a more efficient food safety management system

    A targeted gene expression analysis during biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica on stainless steel surfaces

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    In the present study, the expression of 14 genes was comparatively evaluated between planktonic and biofilm cells of S. Enteritidis. These genes were selected based on previous knowledge on their putative involvement in stress related mechanisms and other colonization implications. Biofilms were left to be formed on stainless steel coupons incubated under static conditions in brain heart growth medium at either 10 or 20°C for 6 days (144 h). Results revealed significant differential expression for the genes studied between the two growth modes (planktonic, sessile)
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