13 research outputs found

    Assessing the Socioeconomic Impacts Arising from Oil Pollutions in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Including Proposals for Solution

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    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic impacts arising from the oil pollutions in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, including a possible solution. Nigeria is a developing country with inherent government failures in legal enforcement, and petroleum companies are unable to comply with pertinent petroleum-related legislation. The study target oil spillage and gas flaring as the principal petroleum-related pollutions, and conducts a field study to determine the pollution impacts on the physical environment. The field study covered two oil and gas-hosting communities and the effects of gas flaring and oil spillage were studied and analysed. Farming and fishery are the main sources of livelihood in the study areas, likewise other oil and gas-hosting communities in the Niger Delta, and impacts on farming and fishery will impact on their livelihood. The study is multidimensional and therefore leans on scientific, law and social methods to prove to achieve its aim and objectives. It is necessary to investigate through laboratory experiments on how pollutions affect the physical environment before resulting to socioeconomic impacts. The laboratory experiments are justified because they are the only scientific method to know how the pollutions impact on the soil, water and air, which negatively affect agriculture and fishery, and thereby causing socioeconomic impacts. The study in addition conducts a secondary method of data collection through questionnaire technique to sample the opinions of the oil-bearing communities. Both the primary and the secondary data are presented in chapter three and research findings in chapter four. The study presents a legal argument (chapter 4.3.1) to attest community perceptions and claims. The major conclusions are firstly that oil-related environmental problems have socioeconomic impacts. Secondly, that solution can be sought through adequate regulatory measures, such as establishing an independent mediating institution, such as an environmental ombudsman, and creating a specialized environmental court or other adjudications

    Vertailu Aspen Polymers®: n ja UniSim® Designin käytettävyyteen ja suorituskykyyn HiPP: n simulointiin

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    Process simulation software are in use for the design, analysis, optimization, and development of different industries. Different simulation software packages are commercially available, and each has its advantages as well as its limitations. Even if such software are employed modelling and simulating chemical processes, it is still often demanding to simulate polymerization plants because of the complexity of polymerization processes. This thesis aims to build flowsheets for a High Impact polypropylene (HiPP) process based on Spheripol® technology (Spheripol Hi-Impact Polypropylene Model, 2017), on Aspen Polymers® and UniSim® Design. The thesis also investigates and compares the usability and performance of the two simulation software, as well as highlights findings on capabilities and possible limitations of the software. HiPP process consists of a prepolymerizer, two slurry loop reactors and a gas phase reactor (GPR), all in series. A single feed of Ziegler-Natta catalyst to the prepolymerizer is used to polymerize the monomer in the various reactors. The prepolymerizer and slurry loop reactors are in liquid phase, while the GPR is in both liquid and gas phase. In addition to the reactors, the process also has other process equipment used to remove volatiles from the produced polymer. Besides these, there are also recycle streams in the flowsheet, which adds to the complexity of the process. The models built on Aspen Polymers® and UniSim® Design includes all main equipment. The same reaction kinetic parameters describing the polymerization reactions are employed in both software. The PC-SAFT equation of state thermodynamic model is used in both simulations to predict the polymer properties, as well as the equilibrium concentrations. The results from the simulations show that both Aspen Polymers® and UniSim® Design can be used to describe the HiPP process. Both models also predict the various variables, such as HiPP production rate, polymer average molecular weights, density, etc. The Aspen Polymers® simulation solved in steady state, however, it required considerable effort to converge the model. There were challenges with converging the GPR and recycle streams, which required the use of flowsheet manipulators in order for the model to solve. Predominantly, the design specification block contributed significantly to the robustness and overall convergence of the Aspen Polymers® flowsheet. UniSim® Design flowsheet was rather solved as a dynamic model, since with the current work, the software did not find a steady state solution. Nevertheless, an advantage of the dynamic model is that the simulation is not dependent on user-defined flowsheet manipulators. However, the dynamic model required more process specifications, such as controller PID tuning and valve sizing.Prosessisimulaatio-ohjelmistoja käytetään laajasti eri toimialoilla suunnitteluun, analysointiin, optimointiin ja kehittämiseen. Erilaisia simulaatio-ohjelmistopaketteja on kaupallisesti saatavana, ja jokaisella on omat etunsa ja rajoituksensa. Tällaisia ohjelmistoja käytetään esimerkiksi kemiallisten prosessien simulointiin ja mallintamiseen, mutta polymerointiprosessien simulointi on edelleen vaativaa polymerointiprosessien monimutkaisuuden vuoksi. Tämän diplomityön tarkoituksena on mallintaa ja simuloida Spheripol®-tekniikkaan (Spheripol Hi-Impact Polypropylene Model, 2017) perustuva High Impact Polypropylene (HiPP) prosessi Aspen Polymers®- ja UniSim® Design - ohjelmistoilla. Diplomityössä tutkitaan ja verrataan näiden simulointiohjelmistojen käytettävyyttä ja suorituskykyä sekä korostetaan havaintoja ohjelmiston ominaisuuksista ja mahdollisista rajoituksista HiPP prosessin mallinnuksessa. HiPP-prosessi koostuu esipolymerointireaktorista, kahdesta lieteluuppireaktorista ja kaasufaasireaktorista, kaikki sarjassa. Ziegler-Natta-katalyytti syötetään esipolymerointireaktoriin, minkä jälkeen monomeerien polymerointi jatkuu kaikissa muissa reaktoreissa. Esipolymerointireaktori ja lieteluuppireaktorit ovat nestefaasissa, kun taas kaasufaasireaktori on sekä neste- että kaasufaasissa. Reaktorien lisäksi prosessissa on myös muita prosessilaitteita, joita käytetään haihtuvien aineiden poistamiseen tuotetusta polymeeristä. Näiden lisäksi simulaatiossa on myös kierrätysvirtoja, mikä monimutkaistaa prosessia. Tässä työssä rakennetut Aspen Polymers®- ja UniSim® Design simulointimallit sisältävät kaikki päälaitteet. HiPP polymerointireaktion mallinnuksessa käytettiin molemmissa simulaatioissa samoja reaktiokineettisiä parametreja. Polymeerin ominaisuuksien ja komponenttien tasapainopitoisuuksien ennustamiseen käytettiin PC-SAFT-yhtälö. Simulaatioiden tulokset osoittavat, että sekä Aspen Polymers® että UniSim® Design onnistuivat mallintamaan HiPP-prosessia. Molemmat simulaatiot ennustavat myös erilaisia muuttujia, kuten tuotantomäärät, polymeerin keskimääräiset moolimassat, polymeerin tiheykset, jne. Aspen Polymers® simulaatio ratkaistiin steady-state mallina, mutta simulaation konvergenssi vaati kuitenkin huomattavasti työtä. Erityisen konvergenssi haasteita oli kaasufaasireaktorissa ja kierrätysvirroissa, jotka edellyttivät simulaation manipulaattoreiden käyttöä simulaation ratkaisemiseksi. Erityisesti Aspen® Polymers: n Design specification block vaikutti merkittävästi simulaation konvergenssiin ja stabiiliuteen. UniSim® Design simulaatio ratkaistiin pikemminkin dynaamisena mallina, koska nykyisessä työssä ohjelmisto ei löytänyt steady-state ratkaisua. Dynaamisen mallin etuna on kuitenkin se, että simulaatio ei ole riippuvainen käyttäjän määrittämistä simulaation manipulaattoreista simulointilohkojen konvergoimiseksi. Dynaaminen malli vaati kuitenkin lisää prosessimäärityksiä, kuten venttiilien mitoituksia ja PID-säädimen viritystä

    Production of biodiesel

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    Self-Leadership in a Remote Work Environment: Emerging Trends and Implications for Occupational Well-Being

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    When individuals are given the freedom to work remotely, self-discipline and self-motivation become more crucial. Remote work can present challenges to self-leadership as employees are required to independently prioritise their work, make decisions, and hold themselves accountable for meeting deadlines. In this study, structural equation modelling was used to analyse data from 206 employees with remote work experience. The study found that remote work characteristics have implications for occupational well-being and that they influence the effectiveness of leadership and the perception of work roles. It is important that managers ensure employees working remotely enjoy flexible work hours, autonomy, communication and collaboration for improved occupational well-being. This study contributes novel insights into self-leadership and psychological empowerment within the remote work context, emphasising their interconnectedness and implications for occupational well-being

    Assessing the Socioeconomic Impacts Arising from Oil Pollutions in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria – Environmental Law and Management

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    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic impacts arising from the oil pollutions in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, including a possible solution. Nigeria is a developing country with inherent government failures in legal enforcement, and petroleum companies are unable to comply with pertinent petroleum-related legislation. The study target oil spillage and gas flaring as the principal petroleum-related pollutions, and conducts a field study to determine the pollution impacts on the physical environment. The field study covered two oil and gas-hosting communities and the effects of gas flaring and oil spillage were studied and analysed. Farming and fishery are the main sources of livelihood in the study areas, likewise other oil and gas-hosting communities in the Niger Delta, and impacts on farming and fishery will impact on their livelihood. The study is multidimensional and therefore leans on scientific, law and social methods to prove to achieve its aim and objectives. It is necessary to investigate through laboratory experiments on how pollutions affect the physical environment before resulting to socioeconomic impacts. The laboratory experiments are justified because they are the only scientific method to know how the pollutions impact on the soil, water and air, which negatively affect agriculture and fishery, and thereby causing socioeconomic impacts. The study in addition conducts a secondary method of data collection through questionnaire technique to sample the opinions of the oil-bearing communities. Both the primary and the secondary data are presented in chapter three and research findings in chapter four. The study presents a legal argument (chapter 4.3.1) to attest community perceptions and claims. The major conclusions are firstly that oil-related environmental problems have socioeconomic impacts. Secondly, that solution can be sought through adequate regulatory measures, such as establishing an independent mediating institution, such as an environmental ombudsman, and creating a specialized environmental court or other adjudications

    Remote Working during the Covid-19 Global Pandemic and its Implications for Employee Motivation: Some Evidence from Nigeria through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory

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    Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world took several safety measures, including enforced confinement to check the spread of the disease. These measures had economic, health, and psychosocial implications. On the other hand, the pandemic accelerated remote working and the deployment of technology to support this new way of working as businesses needed to continue functioning. Empirical research on the implication of these measures on the mental health, engagement, and motivation of employees abound in other jurisdictions, whereas it is limited in Nigeria. From a self-determination perspective, this study examines the mediating roles of organizational factors (OF) and employee’s individual situation (ES) on employee motivation during the pandemic. The study employed a survey research design while descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling were used to analyze the data. Remote working intensity (RW) during the pandemic had a significant positive impact on organizational factors. Employee’s Individual Situation had a significant positive impact on Employee Motivation (EM). The study concludes that as good as remote working may seem, the enforced confinement led to increased stress levels, more mental health challenges, and lower motivation. The moderation role of basic psychological needs (PN) satisfaction was confirmed. The findings showed that employees who could influence their work schedule were more motivated. Higher levels of support from employers that enabled individuals to achieve desired results amidst the uncertainties created by the pandemic were also associated with better levels of motivation. Employees in organizations that found innovative ways for social connection and had regular check-ins by managers were more engaged and motivated because employers’ support was found to be empowering, produced better psychological health, and helped employees feel self-determined. Even though the study shows the association between remote working, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and employee motivation, how motivation level changes after some point or the degree to which it would change in the post-pandemic era remains unclear and should be an area for further study since motivation is not a unitary phenomenon

    Self-Determination Theory: The Mediating Role of Generational Differences in Employee Engagement

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    The fulfilment of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness exists along a continuum from amotivation to intrinsic motivation. Between these extremes is extrinsic motivation. More than ever before, we have more generational gaps in today’s workplace, and it is generally believed that younger employees differ strongly from older generations in values and motivation. Generational differences were used as the mediating variable in this study, which examines the predictive validity of employee engagement using extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse data obtained from 564 respondents across different generational cohorts using structured questionnaire. The study found that generational differences do not positively mediate between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and engagement outcomes. Generational differences in the workplace were found to be mostly exaggerated. Also, intrinsic motivation was more positively related to employee engagement than extrinsic motivation across all generations. Furthermore, we found that even though extrinsic and intrinsic motivation operates on different spectrums, they complement each other. These findings have important implications for managers, particularly because employee engagement is a critical enabler for productivity and employee retention

    Enforced Remote Work During the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Relationship between Remote Working Intensity and Employee Motivation Using A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

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    Since the time corona virus disease (COVID-19) outbreak was first reported in December 2019, the world has never been the same. With rapid spread of the disease, individuals, organisations and governments took steps to curtail the damage that followed including travel restrictions, social distancing and remote working. Little is known based on empirical evidence of the relationship between remote working and employee motivation. This study employed survey research design, and analysed data using structural equation modelling. Using self-determination approach, the study found that, although remote working saved commuting time for employees and improved work-life balance for most, it did not improve employee motivation. One reason for this was that remote working took employees by surprise and many saw it as forced flexibility because they had no other option and had no input in the decision to work remotely. The negative relationship between remote working and employee motivation is also connected to lack of face-to-face collaboration, inadequate peer support and social isolation. Building digital competencies require time and effort, and the frequent interruption of work due to other demands at home negatively affected work, creating stress, mental health challenges and other psychosocial risk issues. These present an opportunity for organisations to formulate and implement policies that support remote working, and ultimately improve engagement and motivational outcomes in the new normal. Research paper Keywords: Remote working, COVID-19, work from home; basic psychological needs, self-determination, motivation Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Nwoko, C., & Yazdani, K. (2022). Enforced Remote Work During the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Relationship between Remote Working Intensity and Employee Motivation Using A Structural Equation Modelling Approach. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Economics, 10(2S2), 165–200
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