55 research outputs found

    Non-use of Contraception by Canadian Youth Aged 15 to 24: Findings From the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

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    OBJECTIVES: Non-use of contraception is an important contributor to unintended pregnancy. This study assessed non-use of contraception and its determinants among Canadian youth aged 15 to 24. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged 15 to 24 were used to identify non-users of contraception among heterosexual youth who had had intercourse within the previous 12 months, were not pregnant or sterilized, and felt it was important to avoid pregnancy. Sociodemographic, behavioural, and geographic factors were compared for non-users and users of contraception. RESULTS: Among youth at risk for unintended pregnancy, 15.5% were non-users of contraception. There were no differences between sexes. Across regions of Canada, Quebéc had the highest proportion of at-risk youth, but at-risk Quebéc youth were the least likely to be non-users (7.4%; CI 5.7%-9.0%) compared with at-risk youth in the Territories (28.3%; CI 21.6%-35.0%). In the multivariable analysis, aside from residence outside of Quebéc, younger age, lower income, Aboriginal identification (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.67; CI 1.18-2.37), and smoking (aOR 1.55; CI 1.24-1.92) were associated with non-use. Canadian-born youth (aOR 0.61; CI 0.39-0.96) and those enrolled in school (aOR 0.63; CI 0.50-0.81) were less likely to be non-users. CONCLUSION: The 15.5% of Canadian youth at risk for unintended pregnancy who were non-users of contraception represent an estimated 300 000 Canadian youth. Policies and programs to promote and support access to sexual health services and effective contraception with specific attention to supporting the needs of younger teens, Aboriginal youth, newcomers, low-income youth, and youth who are not in school are needed

    Two populations of transition discs?

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    We examine the distribution of transition discs as a function of mm flux. We confirm that as expected in any model in which most primordial discs turn into transition discs and in which mm flux declines with time, transition discs have lower mm fluxes on average than primordial discs. However, we find that the incidence of transition discs does not, as expected, fall monotonically towards large mm fluxes and we investigate the hypothesis that these mm bright transition discs may have a distinct physical origin. We find that mm bright transition discs occupy a separate region of parameter space. Transition discs in the bright mm sub-sample have systematically higher accretion rates and inner hole radii than those in the faint mm sub-sample, along with being systematically weighted to earlier spectral types.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, accepted version: mnras letter

    Unveiling the Structure of Pre-Transitional Disks

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    In the past few years, several disks with inner holes that are empty of small dust grains have been detected and are known as transitional disks. Recently, Spitzer has identified a new class of "pre-transitional disks" with gaps; these objects have an optically thick inner disk separated from an optically thick outer disk by an optically thin disk gap. A near-infrared spectrum provided the first confirmation of a gap in the pre-transitional disk of LkCa 15 by verifying that the near-infrared excess emission in this object was due to an optically thick inner disk. Here we investigate the difference between the nature of the inner regions of transitional and pre-transitional disks using the same veiling-based technique to extract the near-infrared excess emission above the stellar photosphere. We show that the near-infrared excess emission of the previously identified pre-transitional disks of LkCa 15 and UX Tau A in Taurus as well as the newly identified pre-transitional disk of ROX 44 in Ophiuchus can be fit with an inner disk wall located at the dust destruction radius. We also model the broad-band SEDs of these objects, taking into account the effect of shadowing by the inner disk on the outer disk, considering the finite size of the star. The near-infrared excess continua of these three pre-transitional disks, which can be explained by optically thick inner disks, are significantly different from that of the transitional disks of GM Aur, whose near-infrared excess continuum can be reproduced by emission from sub-micron-sized optically thin dust, and DM Tau, whose near-infrared spectrum is consistent with a disk hole that is relatively free of small dust. The structure of pre-transitional disks may be a sign of young planets forming in these disks and future studies of pre-transitional disks will provide constraints to aid in theoretical modeling of planet formation.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ on May 10, 2010; 29 page

    In silico Identification and Expression of Protocadherin Gene Family in Octopus vulgaris

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    Connecting millions of neurons to create a functional neural circuit is a daunting challenge. Vertebrates developed a molecular system at the cell membrane to allow neurons to recognize each other by distinguishing self from non-self through homophilic protocadherin interactions. In mammals, the protocadherin gene family counts about 50 different genes. By hetero-multimerization, protocadherins are capable of generating an impressive number of molecular interfaces. Surprisingly, in the California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculoides, an invertebrate belonging to the Phylum Mollusca, over 160 protocadherins (PCDHs) have been identified. Here we briefly discuss the role of PCDHs in neural wiring and conduct a comparative study of the protocadherin gene family in two closely related octopus species, Octopus vulgaris and O. bimaculoides. A first glance at the expression patterns of protocadherins in O. vulgaris is also provided. Finally, we comment on PCDH evolution in the light of invertebrate nervous system plasticity

    Quadrupedal movement training improves markers of cognition and joint repositioning

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    Introduction - Exercise, and in particular balance and coordination related activities such as dance, appear to have positive effects on cognitive function, as well as neurodegenerative conditions such as dementia and Parkinson’s disease. Quadrupedal gait training is a movement system requiring coordination of all four limbs that has previously been associated with cognitive development in children. There is currently little research into the effect of complex QDP movements on cognitive function in adults. Purpose - To determine the effects of a novel four-week quadrupedal gait training programme on markers of cognitive function and joint reposition sense in healthy adults. Methods - Twenty-two physically active sports science students (15 male and 7 female) were divided into two groups: a training group (TG) and a control group (CG). All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and were tested for joint reposition sense before and after a four-week intervention, during which time the TG completed a series of progressive and challenging quadrupedal movement training sessions. Results - Participants in the TG showed significant improvements in the WCST, with improvements in perseverative errors, non-perseverative errors, and conceptual level response. This improvement was not found in the CG. Joint reposition sense also improved for the TG, but only at 20 degrees of shoulder flexion. Conclusions - Performance of a novel, progressive, and challenging task, requiring the coordination of all 4 limbs, has a beneficial impact on cognitive flexibility, and in joint reposition sense, although only at the specific joint angle directly targeted by the training. The findings are consistent with other studies showing improvements in executive function and joint reposition sense following physical activity

    Tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage: the current status

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    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by pain and disability. It involves all ages and 70% of people aged >65 have some degree of osteoarthritis. Natural cartilage repair is limited because chondrocyte density and metabolism are low and cartilage has no blood supply. The results of joint-preserving treatment protocols such as debridement, mosaicplasty, perichondrium transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation vary largely and the average long-term result is unsatisfactory. One reason for limited clinical success is that most treatments require new cartilage to be formed at the site of a defect. However, the mechanical conditions at such sites are unfavorable for repair of the original damaged cartilage. Therefore, it is unlikely that healthy cartilage would form at these locations. The most promising method to circumvent this problem is to engineer mechanically stable cartilage ex vivo and to implant that into the damaged tissue area. This review outlines the issues related to the composition and functionality of tissue-engineered cartilage. In particular, the focus will be on the parameters cell source, signaling molecules, scaffolds and mechanical stimulation. In addition, the current status of tissue engineering of cartilage will be discussed, with the focus on extracellular matrix content, structure and its functionality