14 research outputs found

    Awareness and Practice of Contraception in Child Bearing Age Women

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    Background: To assess the awareness and usage ofvarious methods of family planning among thechild bearing age married women .Methods: In this cross sectional study marriedfemales (n=524) between 15-45 years of age wereselected .Information was obtained regardingknowledge and pattern of utilizing family planning(FP) services. The source of knowledge either frommedia, family members or friends was noted.Information regarding contraceptive methods likenatural, barrier, pills, injectable hormones,intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), orpermanent method like vasectomy and tubal ligationwas assessed. The reason for selection of thecontraceptive method was asked. The reason for nonpracticeFP was also asked.Results Mean age of the female was 34.12±7.43years. Majority (89%) of the women had awarenessabout contraception and is practised by 51%.. Barriermethod was the most practiced (37.8%) followed bypills (18%) and intra-uterine contraceptive device(17%). Health professionals were the major source ofinformation (64%) while media had least role (7%).About 43% were those who never used anycontraceptive method and those who stoppedmethod later was due to husband disagreement(33%) or due to fear of side effects (>29%).Conclusion. Despite having knowledge, there is awide gap between awareness and practice ofcontraception. One of the major factors amongreasons of non-use of contraception is husband disagreementand fear of side effects. Role of mediashould be encouraged by government to increase thepractice of contraception

    Role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with ovarian masses

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    Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector 64-slice computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and differentiation of benign and malignant ovarian masses using histopathology and surgical findings as the gold standard. Material And Methods: This study was conducted in Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Data was reviewed retrospectively from 1 November 2008 to 12 December 2009. One hundred Patients found to have ovarian masses on CT scan were included in the study. CT scan was performed in all these Patients after administration of oral and IV contrast. Ovarian masses were classified as benign and malignant on scan findings. Imaging findings were compared with histopathologic results and surgical findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of MDCT were calculated. Results: MDCT was found to have 97% sensitivity, 91% specificity, and an accuracy of 96% in the differentiation of benign and malignant ovarian masses, while PPV and NPV were 97% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: MDCT imaging offers a safe, accurate and noninvasive modality to differentiate between benign and malignant ovarian masses

    Association of Stress, Knowledge Management, and Change with Organizational Effectiveness in Education Sector of Pakistan

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    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of organizational stress, knowledge management, and organizational change on organizational effectiveness. A valid questionnaire was distributed to administrative staff and faculty members of different educational institutes. 100 questionnaires were distributed in public and private educational sectors. 75 complete questionnaires were received at response rate of 75%. A non probability random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Pearson’s moment correlation and linear regression was applied to study the relationship between organizational stress, knowledge management, organizational change and organizational effectiveness. Results show significant relationship of factors and positive impact on organizational effectiveness. This research also discusses practical implicatios and research limitations.&nbsp

    Youth Culturally adapted Manual Assisted Problem Solving Training (YCMAP) in Pakistani adolescent with a history of self-harm: protocol for multicentre clinical and cost-effectiveness randomised controlled trial

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    Introduction: Suicide is a global health concern. Sociocultural factors have an impact on self-harm and suicide rates. In Pakistan, both self-harm and suicide are considered as criminal offence’s and are condemned on both religious and social grounds. The proposed intervention ‘Youth Culturally Adapted Manual Assisted Problem Solving Training (YCMAP)’ is based on principles of problem-solving and cognitive–behavioural therapy. YCMAP is a brief, culturally relevant, scalable intervention that can be implemented in routine clinical practice if found to be effective. Method and analysis: A multicentre rater blind randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of YCMAP including a sample of 652 participants, aged 12–18 years, presenting to general physicians/clinicians, emergency room after self harm or self referrals. We will test the effectiveness of 8–10 individual sessions of YCMAP delivered over 3 months compared with treatment as usual. Primary outcome measure is repetition of self-harm at 12 months. The seconday outcomes include reduction in suicidal ideation, hopelessness and distress and improvement in health related quality of life. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postrandomisation. The nested qualitative component will explore perceptions about management of self-harm and suicide prevention among adolescents and investigate participants’ experiences with YCMAP. The study will be guided by the theory of change approach to ensure that the whole trial is centred around needs of the end beneficiaries as key stakeholders in the process. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of University of Manchester, the National Bioethics Committee in Pakistan. The findings of this study will be disseminated through community workshops, social media, conference presentations and peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number: NCT04131179

    Youth Culturally adapted Manual Assisted Problem Solving Training (YCMAP) in Pakistani adolescent with a history of self-harm: protocol for multicentre clinical and cost-effectiveness randomised controlled trial

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    Introduction: Suicide is a global health concern. Sociocultural factors have an impact on self-harm and suicide rates. In Pakistan, both self-harm and suicide are considered as criminal offence’s and are condemned on both religious and social grounds. The proposed intervention ‘Youth Culturally Adapted Manual Assisted Problem Solving Training (YCMAP)’ is based on principles of problem-solving and cognitive–behavioural therapy. YCMAP is a brief, culturally relevant, scalable intervention that can be implemented in routine clinical practice if found to be effective. Method and analysis: A multicentre rater blind randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of YCMAP including a sample of 652 participants, aged 12–18 years, presenting to general physicians/clinicians, emergency room after self harm or self referrals. We will test the effectiveness of 8–10 individual sessions of YCMAP delivered over 3 months compared with treatment as usual. Primary outcome measure is repetition of self-harm at 12 months. The seconday outcomes include reduction in suicidal ideation, hopelessness and distress and improvement in health related quality of life. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postrandomisation. The nested qualitative component will explore perceptions about management of self-harm and suicide prevention among adolescents and investigate participants’ experiences with YCMAP. The study will be guided by the theory of change approach to ensure that the whole trial is centred around needs of the end beneficiaries as key stakeholders in the process. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of University of Manchester, the National Bioethics Committee in Pakistan. The findings of this study will be disseminated through community workshops, social media, conference presentations and peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number: NCT04131179

    Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infestations Among Children

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    Background: To find out the prevalence ofparasitic infestation amongst children.Methods: A total of 1624 stool samples werecollected for examination of prevalence of differenthelminths from the patients complaining fordifferent GIT problems. Heliminths for which testswere performed included Hymenolepis nana,Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica , Enterobiusvermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hook worm andTaenia . Each sample was screened depending uponthe shape and morphology of the eggs and larvae ofdifferent helminths under microscope.Results:Out of 1624, 280 (17.24%) stools for positivefor parasitic infestation. H. nana was the commonestfound parasite. Majority presented in age group 4-6years. Mean age of the respondents was 5±2.8 yearsConclusions: Hymenolepis nana infection wasobserved in 6.0% respondents visiting Holy FamilyHospital majority of the respondent were in earlyschool going age

    COVID-19 impact on hematological and biochemical parameters on outcomes of admitted patients

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    COVID-19 an ongoing pandemic has high transmission and mortality rate gets the attention of researchers to focus on the disease. The burden of disease on the health care system focuses on the COVID-19 impacts on the hematological and biochemical parameters. This study aimed to focus on the laboratory indicators that fluctuate in COVID-19. The single-center cross-sectional study in the pathology department of POF hospital Wah Cantt from August 2021 to December 2021. Three hundred positive COVID-19 patients were included in the study. About 138 (46%) were males and 162 (54%) females and the mean age was 58 ± 15.06 (range 5 – 86). The biochemical indicator raised in COVID-19 included CPK (191.25 ± 507.39), CRP (68.81 ± 70.95), LDH (429.48 ± 246.96), and ALT (46.50 ± 43.23). In hematological parameters, only neutrophils elevated (70.00 ± 13.52) lymphocytes decreased. Laboratory parameters measured were similar values in recovered and death cases. The findings suggest the raised level of CRP, LDH, CPK, ALT, ferritin, D-Dimer, and neutrophils predict early diagnosis and prompt treatment
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