342 research outputs found

    Generalized quantum potentials in scale relativity

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    We first recall that the system of fluid mechanics equations (Euler and continuity) that describes a fluid in irrotational motion subjected to a generalized quantum potential (in which the constant is no longer reduced to the standard quantum constant hbar) is equivalent to a generalized Schrodinger equation. Then we show that, even in the case of the presence of vorticity, it is also possible to obtain, for a large class of systems, a Schrodinger-like equation of the vectorial field type from the continuity and Euler equations including a quantum potential. The same kind of transformation also applies to a classical charged fluid subjected to an electromagnetic field and to an additional potential having the form of a quantum potential. Such a fluid can therefore be described by an equation of the Ginzburg-Landau type, and is expected to show some superconducting-like properties. Moreover, a Schrodinger form can be obtained for the fluctuating rotational motion of a solid. In this case the mass is replaced by the tensor of inertia, and a generalized form of the quantum potential is derived. We finally reconsider the case of a standard diffusion process, and we show that, after a change of variable, the diffusion equation can also be given the form of a continuity and Euler system including an additional potential energy. Since this potential is exactly the opposite of a quantum potential, the quantum behavior may be considered, in this context, as an anti-diffusion.Comment: 33 pages, submitted for publicatio

    Emergence of complex and spinor wave functions in scale relativity. I. Nature of scale variables

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    One of the main results of Scale Relativity as regards the foundation of quantum mechanics is its explanation of the origin of the complex nature of the wave function. The Scale Relativity theory introduces an explicit dependence of physical quantities on scale variables, founding itself on the theorem according to which a continuous and non-differentiable space-time is fractal (i.e., scale-divergent). In the present paper, the nature of the scale variables and their relations to resolutions and differential elements are specified in the non-relativistic case (fractal space). We show that, owing to the scale-dependence which it induces, non-differentiability involves a fundamental two-valuedness of the mean derivatives. Since, in the scale relativity framework, the wave function is a manifestation of the velocity field of fractal space-time geodesics, the two-valuedness of velocities leads to write them in terms of complex numbers, and yields therefore the complex nature of the wave function, from which the usual expression of the Schr\"odinger equation can be derived.Comment: 36 pages, 5 figures, major changes from the first version, matches the published versio

    The Pauli equation in scale relativity

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    In standard quantum mechanics, it is not possible to directly extend the Schrodinger equation to spinors, so the Pauli equation must be derived from the Dirac equation by taking its non-relativistic limit. Hence, it predicts the existence of an intrinsic magnetic moment for the electron and gives its correct value. In the scale relativity framework, the Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations have been derived from first principles as geodesics equations of a non-differentiable and continuous spacetime. Since such a generalized geometry implies the occurence of new discrete symmetry breakings, this has led us to write Dirac bi-spinors in the form of bi-quaternions (complex quaternions). In the present work, we show that, in scale relativity also, the correct Pauli equation can only be obtained from a non-relativistic limit of the relativistic geodesics equation (which, after integration, becomes the Dirac equation) and not from the non-relativistic formalism (that involves symmetry breakings in a fractal 3-space). The same degeneracy procedure, when it is applied to the bi-quaternionic 4-velocity used to derive the Dirac equation, naturally yields a Pauli-type quaternionic 3-velocity. It therefore corroborates the relevance of the scale relativity approach for the building from first principles of the quantum postulates and of the quantum tools. This also reinforces the relativistic and fundamentally quantum nature of spin, which we attribute in scale relativity to the non-differentiability of the quantum spacetime geometry (and not only of the quantum space). We conclude by performing numerical simulations of spinor geodesics, that allow one to gain a physical geometric picture of the nature of spin.Comment: 22 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in J. Phys. A: Math. & Ge

    Emergence of complex and spinor wave functions in Scale Relativity. II. Lorentz invariance and bi-spinors

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    Owing to the non-differentiable nature of the theory of Scale Relativity, the emergence of complex wave functions, then of spinors and bi-spinors occurs naturally in its framework. The wave function is here a manifestation of the velocity field of geodesics of a continuous and non-differentiable (therefore fractal) space-time. In a first paper (Paper I), we have presented the general argument which leads to this result using an elaborate and more detailed derivation than previously displayed. We have therefore been able to show how the complex wave function emerges naturally from the doubling of the velocity field and to revisit the derivation of the non relativistic Schr\"odinger equation of motion. In the present paper (Paper II) we deal with relativistic motion and detail the natural emergence of the bi-spinors from such first principles of the theory. Moreover, while Lorentz invariance has been up to now inferred from mathematical results obtained in stochastic mechanics, we display here a new and detailed derivation of the way one can obtain a Lorentz invariant expression for the expectation value of the product of two independent fractal fluctuation fields in the sole framework of the theory of Scale Relativity. These new results allow us to enhance the robustness of our derivation of the two main equations of motion of relativistic quantum mechanics (the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations) which we revisit here at length.Comment: 24 pages, no figure; very minor corrections to fit the published version: a few typos and a completed referenc

    Non-Abelian gauge field theory in scale relativity

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    Gauge field theory is developed in the framework of scale relativity. In this theory, space-time is described as a non-differentiable continuum, which implies it is fractal, i.e., explicitly dependent on internal scale variables. Owing to the principle of relativity that has been extended to scales, these scale variables can themselves become functions of the space-time coordinates. Therefore, a coupling is expected between displacements in the fractal space-time and the transformations of these scale variables. In previous works, an Abelian gauge theory (electromagnetism) has been derived as a consequence of this coupling for global dilations and/or contractions. We consider here more general transformations of the scale variables by taking into account separate dilations for each of them, which yield non-Abelian gauge theories. We identify these transformations with the usual gauge transformations. The gauge fields naturally appear as a new geometric contribution to the total variation of the action involving these scale variables, while the gauge charges emerge as the generators of the scale transformation group. A generalized action is identified with the scale-relativistic invariant. The gauge charges are the conservative quantities, conjugates of the scale variables through the action, which find their origin in the symmetries of the ``scale-space''. We thus found in a geometric way and recover the expression for the covariant derivative of gauge theory. Adding the requirement that under the scale transformations the fermion multiplets and the boson fields transform such that the derived Lagrangian remains invariant, we obtain gauge theories as a consequence of scale symmetries issued from a geometric space-time description.Comment: 24 pages, LaTe

    Gravitational structure formation in scale relativity

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    In the framework of the theory of scale relativity, we suggest a solution to the cosmological problem of the formation and evolution of gravitational structures on many scales. This approach is based on the giving up of the hypothesis of differentiability of space-time coordinates. As a consequence of this generalization, space-time is not only curved, but also fractal. In analogy with Einstein's general relativistic methods, we describe the effects of space fractality on motion by the construction of a covariant derivative. The principle of equivalence allows us to write the equation of dynamics as a geodesics equation that takes the form of the equation of free Galilean motion. Then, after a change of variables, this equation can be integrated in terms of a gravitational Schrodinger equation that involves a new fundamental gravitational coupling constant, alpha_{g} = w_{0}/c. Its solutions give probability densities that quantitatively describe precise morphologies in the position space and in the velocity space. Finally the theoretical predictions are successfully checked by a comparison with observational data: we find that matter is self-organized in accordance with the solutions of the gravitational Schrodinger equation on the basis of the universal constant w_{0}=144.7 +- 0.7 km/s (and its multiples and sub-multiples), from the scale of our Earth and the Solar System to large scale structures of the UniverseComment: 34 pages, 42 figures. Higher quality figures adde
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