15 research outputs found

    Beating the standard quantum limit for binary phase-shift-keying discrimination with a hybrid feed-forward receiver

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    We propose a hybrid feed-forward receiver (HFFRE) for the discrimination of binary phase-shift-keyed coherent states based on the appropriate combination of the displacement feed-forward receiver (DFFRE) and a homodyne-like setup employing a low-intensity local oscillator and photon-number-resolving detectors. We investigate the performance of the proposed scheme addressing also realistic scenarios in the presence of non-unit quantum detection efficiency, dark counts and a visibility reduction. The present HFFRE outperforms the DFFRE in all conditions, beating the standard quantum limit in particular regimes.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figure

    Entanglement recovery in noisy binary quantum information protocols via three-qubit quantum error correction codes

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    The task of preserving entanglement against noises is of crucial importance for both quantum communication and quantum information transfer. To this aim, quantum error correction (QEC) codes may be employed to compensate, at least partially, the detriments induced by environmental noise that can be modelled as a bit-flip or a phase-flip error channel. In this paper we investigate the effects of the simple three-qubit QEC codes to restore entanglement and nonlocality in a two-qubit system and consider two practical applications: superdense coding and quantum teleportation. Though the considered three-qubit QEC codes are known to perfectly work in the presence of very small noise, we show that they can avoid the sudden death of entanglement and improve the performance of the addressed protocols also for larger noise amplitudes.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figure

    Hybrid near-optimum binary receiver with realistic photon-number-resolving detectors

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    We propose a near-optimum receiver for the discrimination of binary phase-shift-keyed coherent states employing photon-number-resolving detectors. The receiver exploits a discrimination strategy based on both the so-called homodyne-like and the direct detection, thus resulting in a hybrid scheme. We analyse the performance and the robustness of the proposed scheme under realistic conditions, namely, in the presence of inefficient detection and dark counts. We show that the present hybrid setup is near-optimum and beats both the standard-quantum-limit and the performance of the Kennedy receiver.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figure

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase gene expressions are significantly correlated in human colorectal cancer

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    BACKGROUND: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ő≥ (PPARő≥) is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenic differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are key enzymes involved in the metabolism of polyamines, compounds that play an important role in cell proliferation. While the PPARő≥ role in tumour growth has not been clearly defined, the involvement of the altered polyamine metabolism in colorectal carcinogenesis has been established. In this direction, we have evaluated the PPARő≥ expression and its relationship with polyamine metabolism in tissue samples from 40 patients operated because of colorectal carcinoma. Since it is known that the functional role of K-ras mutation in colorectal tumorigenesis is associated with cell growth and differentiation, polyamine metabolism and the PPARő≥ expression were also investigated in terms of K-ras mutation. METHODS: PPARő≥, ODC and SSAT mRNA levels were evaluated by reverse transcriptase and real-time PCR. Polyamines were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ODC and SSAT activity were measured by a radiometric technique. RESULTS: PPARő≥ expression, as well as SSAT and ODC mRNA levels were significantly higher in cancer as compared to normal mucosa. Tumour samples also showed significantly higher polyamine levels and ODC and SSAT activities in comparison to normal samples. A significant and positive correlation between PPARő≥ and the SSAT gene expression was observed in both normal and neoplastic tissue (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001; r = 0.65, p < 0.0001, respectively). Moreover, gene expression, polyamine levels and enzymatic activities were increased in colorectal carcinoma samples expressing K-ras mutation as compared to non mutated K-ras samples. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data demonstrated a close relationship between PPARő≥ and SSAT in human colorectal cancer and this could represent an attempt to decrease polyamine levels and to reduce cell growth and tumour development. Therefore, pharmacological activation of PPARő≥ and/or induction of SSAT may represent a therapeutic or preventive strategy for treating colorectal cancer

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution with feasible physical noiseless linear amplifiers

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    Noiseless linear amplifiers (NLAs) provide a powerful tool to achieve long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) in the presence of realistic setups with non unit reconciliation efficiency. We address a NLA-assisted CV-QKD protocol implemented via realistic physical NLAs, namely, quantum scissors (QS) and single-photon catalysis (SPC), and compare their performance with respect to the ideal NLA gn^g^{\hat{n}}. We investigate also the robustness of two schemes against inefficient conditional detection, and discuss the two alternative scenarios in which the gain associated with the NLA is either fixed or optimized.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figure