10 research outputs found

    Strongyloides ratti e S. stercoralis: efeitos de cambendazol, tiabendazol e mebendazol in vitro

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    The effects of in vitro incubation of three henzimidazole anthelmintics, thiabendazole, mebendazole and cambendazole on Strongyloides were compared. No drug affected hatching of S. ratti eggs or the viability of infective larvae or parasitic adult worms, but all three inhibited moulting of S. ratti larvae. In addition, cambendazole, but not thiabendazole or mebendazole, impaired the viability of S. ratti first- and second-stage larvae. The three drugs had no effect on isolated S. stercorais free-living adult worms, but they all prevented development of S. stercoralis rhabditiform larvae. Thiabendazole and mebendazole had no effect on the infectivity of either S. ratti or S. stercoralis infective larvae, but infection with these worms was abrogated by prior incubation with cambendazole. These results indicate that cambendazole acts in a different manner to the other two drugs. Since it is active against larvae migrating through the tissues, it is potentially of much greater value than thiabendazole or mebendazole in the therapy of strongyloidiasis.Os efeitos da incubação de três antihelmínticos, tiabendazol, mebendazol e cambendazol sobre Strongyloides foram comparados. Nenhuma droga afetou a eclosão dos ovos de S. ratti ou a viabilidade de larvas infectantes ou vermes adultos parasitários, mas todas as três inibiram a formação de larvas de S. ratti. Além disso, cambendazol, mas não tiabendazol ou mebendazol, diminuiu a viabilidade de larvas de primeiro e segundo estágio de S. ratti. As três drogas não tiveram efeito sobre vermes adultos de vida livre isolados, de S. stercoralis, mas todas evitaram o desenvolvimento de larvas rabditiformes de S. stercoralis. Tiabenda zol e mebendazol não tiveram efeito sobre a infectividade de larvas infectantes de S. ratti ou de S. stercoralis, mas a infecção com esses vermes foi anulada por incubação prévia com cambendazol. Esses resultados indicam que cambendazol age de modo diferente das outras duas drogas. Uma vez que ele é ativo contra lar vas migrando através dos tecidos, é potencial mente de muito maior valor que o tia bendazol ou mebendazol na terapêutica da esbrongiloidíase

    Weight outcomes audit in 1.3 million adults during their first 3 months' attendance in a commercial weight management programme

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    Background: Over sixty percent of adults in the UK are now overweight/obese. Weight management on a national scale requires behavioural and lifestyle solutions that are accessible to large numbers of people. Evidence suggests commercial weight management programmes help people manage their weight but there is little research examining those that pay to attend such programmes rather than being referred by primary care. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of a UK commercial weight management programme in self-referred, fee-paying participants. Methods: Electronic weekly weight records were collated for self-referred, fee-paying participants of Slimming World groups joining between January 2010 and April 2012. This analysis reports weight outcomes in 1,356,105 adult, non-pregnant participants during their first 3 months’ attendance. Data were analysed by regression, ANOVA and for binomial outcomes, chi-squared tests using the R statistical program. Results: Mean (SD) age was 42.3 (13.6) years, height 1.65 m (0.08) and start weight was 88.4 kg (18.8). Mean start BMI was 32.6 kg/m² (6.3 kg/m²) and 5 % of participants were men. Mean weight change of all participants was −3.9 kg (3.6), percent weight change −4.4 (3.8), and BMI change was −1.4 kg/m² (1.3). Mean attendance was 7.8 (4.3) sessions in their first 3 months. For participants attending at least 75 % of possible weekly sessions (n = 478,772), mean BMI change was −2.5 kg/m² (1.3), weight change −6.8 kg (3.7) and percent weight change −7.5 % (3.5). Weight loss was greater in men than women absolutely (−6.5 (5.3) kg vs −3.8 (3.4) kg) and as a percentage (5.7 % (4.4) vs 4.3 % (3.7)), respectively. All comparisons were significant (p < 0.001). Level of attendance and percent weight loss in the first week of attendance together accounted for 55 % of the variability in weight lost during the study period. Conclusions: A large-scale commercial lifestyle-based weight management programme had a significant impact on weight loss outcomes over 3 months. Higher levels of attendance led to levels of weight loss known to be associated with significant clinical benefits, which on this scale may have an impact on public health

    “Landscape Level Dynamics in an Endangered Mountain Ecosystem, Northern Rocky

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    I am submitting herewith a dissertation written by Saskia L. van de Gevel entitle

    Conflicts in representing the regions in Brussels: The case of wales

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    Moore C. (2006) Conflicts in representing the regions in Brussels: the case of Wales, Regional Studies 40, 793-799. Regional representative offices in Brussels are today commonplace, and their number continues to grow. However, these offices vary in the scope and remit of their activities, with their function dictated by their end users, the home or sending authorities. In Wales, the shifting nature of regional governance has demanded a restructuring of the capacities for the representation of Welsh interests at the European Union level. A long and often contentious process of trial and error ultimately saw Welsh forms of interest mediation in the European Union post-devolution converge on a model established by Scottish actors in Brussels. This points to an emerging pattern of European Union-level engagement subsequent to the introduction of regional government. Moore C. (2006) Des conflits quant a la representation des regions a Bruxelles: etude de cas du Pays de Galles, Regional Studies 40, 793-799. De nos jours, la presence a Bruxelles des bureaux charges de representer les regions se banalise et leur nombre ne cesse d'augmenter. Neanmoins, la portee et les attributions de leurs competences varient etant donne que leur role se voit determiner par les utilisateurs finaux, l'administration d'origine ou d'accueil. Au Pays de Galles, l'evolution de l'administration regionale a necessite une restructuration des moyens de representer les interets gallois au niveau de l'Ue. A terme, un processus par tatonnement, a la fois long et souvent controverse, a fini dans une Ue d'apres-regionalisation par la convergence des systemes de mediation gallois sur un modele etabli a Bruxelles par des acteurs ecossais. Cela indique une tendance naissante a l'engagement au niveau de l'Ue a la suite de l'etablissement de l'administration regionale. Union europeenne Pays de Galles Regions Regionalisation Representation Moore C. (2006) Konflikte bei der Vertretung von Regionen in Brussel: der Fall Wales, Regional Studies 40, 793-799. Heutzutage sind Regionalvertretungen in Brussel etwas Alltagliches, und ihre Zahl nimmt weiter zu. Umfang und Aufgabenbereich dieser Buros sind jedoch verschieden, wobei ihre Funktion vom Endverbraucher, der Heimat- oder Entsendungsbehorde, bestimmt wird. In Wales hat die sich wandelnde Natur der Regionalverwaltung eine Umstrukturierung der Kapazitaten fur die Vertretung der walischen Interessen auf der Ebene der EU verlangt. Ein ausgedehnter und oft umstrittener Prozess des Ausprobierens liess schliesslich walisische Formen der Interessenvermittlung in der EU nach der Machtubertragung in ein Modell einmunden, das in Brussel nach schottischem Vorbild aufgestellt worden war. Dies zeigt an, dass ein Muster zur Mitarbeit auf EU-Ebene nach Einfuhrung einer Regionalverwaltung entsteht. Europaische Union Wales Regionen Machtubertragung Reprasentation Moore C. (2006) Conflictos para representar las regiones en Bruselas: el caso de Gales, Regional Studies 40, 793-799. Las oficinas de representantes regionales en Bruselas son corrientes hoy dia y su numero sigue creciendo. Sin embargo, existen variaciones en el alcance y las competencias de las actividades de estas oficinas de modo que sus funciones son dictadas por los usuarios, es decir, las autoridades nacionales o de envio. En Gales, la naturaleza cambiante de la gobernanza regional ha exigido una reestruccturacion de las capacidades para la representacion de los intereses de Gales en la Union Europea. En un proceso largo y, a menudo, contencioso de ensayo y error, se observaron ultimamente formas galesas de mediacion de intereses en la convergencia despues de la transferencia de competencias en la Union Europea segun un modelo establecido por protagonistas escoceses en Bruselas. Esto senala un modelo emergente de participacion en la UE despues de la introduccion del gobierno regional. Union Europea Gales Regiones Transferencia de competencias RepresentacionEuropean Union, Wales, Regions, Devolution, Representation,

    Reduced T helper and B lymphocytes in Parkinsons disease

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    Gene association with HLA suggests involvement of immune mediated mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease (PD). Only a small number of studies have found differences between circulating leukocyte populations in PD patients compared to controls, with conflicting results. To clarify whether there is a circulating leukocyte PD phenotype, we assessed the numbers of T, B and natural killer cells, and monocytes and found a small reduction (15-25%) in CD4+ T and CD19+ B cells in PD. These findings suggest some compromise in immune cells in PD and have potential implications for immune function and the progression of PD