61 research outputs found

    Timing of Childhood Adversities and Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors in Adolescence

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    Greater childhood adversity predicts a higher likelihood of later self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB). There is little research focused on whether the timing of childhood adversity predicts SITB. The current research examined whether the timing of childhood adversity predicted parent- and youth-reported SITB at age 12 and 16 years in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) cohort (n = 970). We found that greater adversity at age 11–12 years consistently predicted SITB at age 12 years, while greater adversity at age 13–14 years consistently predicted SITB at age 16 years. These findings suggest there may be sensitive periods during which adversity may be more likely to lead to adolescent SITB, which can inform prevention and treatment

    The Effects of a Web-Based Alcohol Prevention Program on Social Norms, Expectancies, and Intentions to Prevent Harm among College Student-Athletes

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    College athletes are at risk for heavy alcohol use, which jeopardizes their general health, academic standing, and athletic performance. Effective prevention programming reduces these risks by targeting theory-based intermediate factors that predict alcohol use while tailoring content to student-athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the myPlaybook online prevention program on student-athletes’ social norms, negative alcohol expectancies, and intentions to use alcohol-related harm prevention strategies. NCAA Division II student-athletes were recruited from 60 institutions across the United States to complete myPlaybook and pretest/posttest surveys measuring demographics and targeted outcome variables. Participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group (pretest-program-posttest; final n=647) or the delayed treatment “control” group (pretest-posttest-program; final n=709). Results revealed significant program effects on social norms (pp=.14). Implications for future research and practice are discussed

    ‘I know my rights, but am I better off?’: institutions and disability in Uganda

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    Uganda is internationally recognised for both its legal and constitutional provisions for people with disabilities, and the presence of disabled persons’ organisations that provide informal advocacy and support. Using a unique dataset of 579 Ugandans with physical disabilities, we develop a conceptual framework on social capital to investigate the factors correlated with knowledge of formal institutions that target disability. In examining whether this knowledge results in higher incomes we find that gender matters. A woman’s education and membership of external networks are correlates of knowledge; higher levels of this knowledge are associated with substantially higher levels of income

    Myoblast sensitivity and fibroblast insensitivity to osteogenic conversion by BMP-2 correlates with the expression of Bmpr-1a

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Osteoblasts are considered to primarily arise from osseous progenitors within the periosteum or bone marrow. We have speculated that cells from local soft tissues may also take on an osteogenic phenotype. Myoblasts are known to adopt a bone gene program upon treatment with the osteogenic bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2,-4,-6,-7,-9), but their osteogenic capacity relative to other progenitor types is unclear. We further hypothesized that the sensitivity of cells to BMP-2 would correlate with BMP receptor expression.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We directly compared the BMP-2 sensitivity of myoblastic murine cell lines and primary cells with osteoprogenitors from osseous tissues and fibroblasts. Fibroblasts forced to undergo myogenic conversion by transduction with a MyoD-expressing lentiviral vector (LV-MyoD) were also examined. Outcome measures included alkaline phosphatase expression, matrix mineralization, and expression of osteogenic genes <it>(alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin </it>and <it>bone morphogenetic protein receptor-1A) </it>as measured by quantitative PCR.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>BMP-2 induced a rapid and robust osteogenic response in myoblasts and osteoprogenitors, but not in fibroblasts. Myoblasts and osteoprogenitors grown in osteogenic media rapidly upregulated <it>Bmpr-1a </it>expression. Chronic BMP-2 treatment resulted in peak <it>Bmpr-1a </it>expression at day 6 before declining, suggestive of a negative feedback mechanism. In contrast, fibroblasts expressed low levels of <it>Bmpr-1a </it>that was only weakly up-regulated by BMP-2 treatment. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed the presence of myogenic responsive elements in the proximal promoter region of human and murine <it>BMPR-1A/Bmpr-1a</it>. Forced myogenic gene expression in fibroblasts was associated with a significant increase in <it>Bmpr-1a </it>expression and a synergistic increase in the osteogenic response to BMP-2.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These data demonstrate the osteogenic sensitivity of muscle progenitors and provide a mechanistic insight into the variable response of different cell lineages to BMP-2.</p

    The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

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    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing revised 93% of karyotypes and demonstrated complexity that was cryptic to karyotyping in 21% of BCAs, highlighting the limitations of conventional cytogenetic approaches. At least 33.9% of BCAs resulted in gene disruption that likely contributed to the developmental phenotype, 5.2% were associated with pathogenic genomic imbalances, and 7.3% disrupted topologically associated domains (TADs) encompassing known syndromic loci. Remarkably, BCA breakpoints in eight subjects altered a single TAD encompassing MEF2C, a known driver of 5q14.3 microdeletion syndrome, resulting in decreased MEF2C expression. We propose that sequence-level resolution dramatically improves prediction of clinical outcomes for balanced rearrangements and provides insight into new pathogenic mechanisms, such as altered regulation due to changes in chromosome topology

    Multiethnic Exome-Wide Association Study of Subclinical AtherosclerosisCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

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    The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the risk of subsequent CHD