117 research outputs found

    Sensorimotor Adaptation of Speech Using Real-time Articulatory Resynthesis

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    Sensorimotor adaptation is an important focus in the study of motor learning for non-disordered speech, but has yet to be studied substantially for speech rehabilitation. Speech adaptation is typically elicited experimentally using LPC resynthesis to modify the sounds that a speaker hears himself producing. This method requires that the participant be able to produce a robust speech-acoustic signal and is therefore not well-suited for talkers with dysarthria. We have developed a novel technique using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to drive an articulatory synthesizer. The acoustic output of the articulatory synthesizer can be perturbed experimentally to study auditory feedback effects on sensorimotor learning. This work aims to compare sensorimotor adaptation effects using our articulatory resynthesis method with effects from an established, acoustic-only method. Results suggest that the articulatory resynthesis method can elicit speech adaptation, but that the articulatory effects of the two methods differ

    Speech Sensorimotor Learning through a Virtual Vocal Tract

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    Studies of speech sensorimotor learning often manipulate auditory feedback by modifying isolated acoustic parameters such as formant frequency or fundamental frequency using near real-time resynthesis of a participant\u27s speech. An alternative approach is to engage a participant in a total remapping of the sensorimotor working space using a virtual vocal tract. To support this approach for studying speech sensorimotor learning we have developed a system to control an articulatory synthesizer using electromagnetic articulography data. Articulator movement data from the NDI Wave System are streamed to a Maeda articulatory synthesizer. The resulting synthesized speech provides auditory feedback to the participant. This approach allows the experimenter to generate novel articulatory-acoustic mappings. Moreover, the acoustic output of the synthesizer can be perturbed using acoustic resynthesis methods. Since no robust speech-acoustic signal is required from the participant, this system will allow for the study of sensorimotor learning in any individuals, even those with severe speech disorders. In the current work we present preliminary results that demonstrate that typically-functioning participants can use a virtual vocal tract to produce diphthongs within a novel articulatory-acoustic workspace. Once sufficient baseline performance is established, perturbations to auditory feedback (formant shifting) can elicit compensatory and adaptive articulatory responses

    Proof of a Problem

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    In this paper I have constructed an overview of mathematical proof, which involves several factors. A large part of understanding our current methods of teaching proof is knowing the history of proof. I also take a look at several different methods of proving and why proof is important. The focal point of the paper is the difficulties students have with mathematical proof and the difficulties the students that I did a field study with had. This stems from many different factors, the biggest being definitions. Another problem is lack of emphasis so I have also included an overview of national standards of proof and international comparison for proof. Possible solutions to the difficulties that students have with proof are changing teacher conception of proof, a transitional course, and the modified-Moore method

    Reading first and scientifically based reading research programs : answers to North Carolina's reading problems

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    As a teacher in a Reading First school, I have often heard the term scientifically based reading research. In order to find more information about this topic and to analyze the effectiveness of the scientific research for myself, this thesis enabled me to explore the research that has been done to initiate this movement to all scientifically based instruction. Textbooks, research studies, and curricula were analyzed while completing this thesis. The thesis is written in five chapters. It examines research on reading achievement, instruction, and assessment. Much of the thesis focuses on how North Carolina has used the information about scientifically based reading research to guide its reading programs. The goal of this thesis was to better condense all of the material that has been presented so that it would be in a brief form for other educators that are interested in this topic to be able to examine. A major conclusion of the thesis is that the kind of reading instruction advocated by Reading First is highly effective when implemented properly

    Assimilation of particulate and dissolved basal carbon resources by Sphaerium nitidium and Grensia praeterita in an arctic lake

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    During the summer 2006, I tested the importance of dissolved and particulate basal carbon sources to the caddisfly, Grensia praeterita, and the fingernail clam, Sphaerium nitidium, using intact sediment cores in a 1-month incubation experiment. Carbon sources included a 13C labeled seston treatment, an algal-derived DO13C treatment, a 13C- methyl labeled acetate treatment, and a 13C- carboxyl labeled acetate treatment. Grensia and Sphaerium were both found to rely on both particulate and dissolved carbon sources. While enrichment from the 13C labeled seston treatment (particulate source) was the largest source for both organisms, Grensia and Sphaerium both showed reliance on microbial loop processing as seen by assimilation of the algal-derived DO13C treatment. Sphaerium also assimilated carbon derived from methanogenic and non-methanogenic pathways of the microbial loop, based on differential assimilation of the two 13C labeled acetate treatments

    Online kinesiology: using the community of inquiry framework to enhance students’ learning experiences

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    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework on students’ perspectives of an online Kinesiology course. A Health-Related Fitness and Wellness course, an introductory Kinesiology class in the California State University, was converted to an online format using the CoI framework. Results showed that students reported high perception at times 1, 2, and 3 for cognitive presence (M = 4.39 ± .52; M = 4.24 ± .78; M = 4.14 ± .79), teaching presence (M = 4.65 ± .40; M=4.40 ± .69; M = 4.42 ± .65), and social presence (M = 4.28 ± .66; M = 4.20 ± .70; M = 3.94 ± .89). Canonical correlation analysis revealed that social presence (.62) was strongly and positively associated with sense of community (.54) and student satisfaction (.47), and the redundancy index indicated that 53.95% of the variance in both sense of community and student satisfaction could be accounted for by social presence. The results also indicted that the students had a high, positive perception of the CoI framework, and that perception of the framework did not change over time. The results also indicated that social presence was correlated with student satisfaction and sense of community. The findings of this study seem to imply that with continuous implementation of the CoI framework, students had a high perception of the three presences, with social presence having the most contribution to students’ sense of community and satisfaction with the course

    A phenomenological exploration of the sport-career transition experiences that affect subjective well-being of former national football players

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    "The purpose of this study was to gain understanding and insight into the dynamics of the sport-career transition experiences of former National Football League athletes and examine how subjective well-being is influenced by this developmental stage. Using the interpretive tradition of phenomenology, and the Conceptual Model of Adaptation to Career Transition as the theoretical framework, interviews with seven former National Football League athletes were conducted. These individuals retired from professional sport-careers within the last six years (1999 - 2005), were at least one year removed from professional competition and were not actively pursuing a career in professional sport. Evidence suggests that most athletes, while they believed that they were prepared for the sport-career transition period, admit that when faced with the retirement event realized that their preparation efforts were inadequate resulting in negative feelings of subjective well-being. Participants in this study reported that they experienced moderate difficulty during the sport-career transition period. Findings centered around four core themes: (a) how former players understand and describe the sport-career transition experience; (b) systems of support to help with the sport-career transition; (c) how to prepare for the sport-career transition; and (d) subjective well-being. Accounts of adjustment difficulties and awareness of the potential for negative subjective well-being allowed participants to advance recommendations for sport-career transition interventions for current and future professional and elite football athletes to promote positive adaptation to the sport-career transition and subjective well-being. The sport career transition is a complex, multidimensional process and the outcome is contingent upon the individuals' cognitive, social, behavioral and emotional resources and level of preparation for the sport-career transition. The importance for athletes to participate in sport-career transition programs during their sport-careers is undeniable and has been revealed to be a powerful facilitator affecting the quality of the sport-career transition after the sport-career has ended."--Abstract from author supplied metadata

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau's writings on music as an aspect of preromanticism

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    Rousseau's works concerning music reveal various recurrent themes which are now considered preromantic. While the writings on theory may be viewed as a treatise on Rousseau's preromantic philosophy, the characters and themes of his operas seem to foretell his most outstanding sentimental work, La nouvelle Héloise. Rousseau wrote the "Lettre à M. Grimm," "Lettre sur la musique française," and the "Lettre d'un symphoniste," in which he revealed his preferences for the simple Italian melodic music over the more complex French harmonic music, at the time of the "Guerre des bouffons" in France. During the "Guerre des Gluckistes et des Piccinistes" Rousseau wrote "Fragments d' observations sur l' Alceste" and the "Extrait d'une réponse du petit faiseur à son prête-nom sur un morceau de l' Orphée" in support of Christoph Willibald Gluck's emotive French reform operas

    An analysis of the production of Aurand Harris's The brave little tailor

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    This study records the evolution of a production of Aurand Harris's The Brave Little Tailor from the initial plans to its performances and contains a critical evaluation of the author's fulfillment of her duties as director. Chapter One describes the director's concept of the play and the designs created for her on the basis of this concept. The director states her intended approach to the interpretation of the theme, "Might does not make right." Chapter Two consists of the prompt book for the production, including notations of blocking, and photographic illustrations. Chapter Three is a critical evaluation of the final production, emphasizing those elements within the director's control
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