893 research outputs found

    Arguing Using Opponent Models

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    Interferon-位 cures persistent murine norovirus infection in the absence of adaptive immunity

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    Norovirus gastroenteritis is amajor public health burden worldwide. Although fecal shedding is important for transmission of enteric viruses, little is known about the immune factors that restrict persistent enteric infection. We report here that although the cytokines interferon-伪 (IFN-伪) and IFN-尾 prevented the systemic spread of murine norovirus (MNoV), only IFN-位controlled persistent enteric infection. Infection-dependent induction of IFN-位 was governed by the MNoV capsid protein and correlated with diminished enteric persistence. Treatment of established infection with IFN-位 cured mice in a manner requiring nonhematopoietic cell expression of the IFN-位 receptor, Ifnlr1, and independent of adaptive immunity. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of IFN-位 for curing virus infections in the gastrointestinal tract

    ROSAT PSPC observations of nearby spiral galaxies - II. Statistical properties

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    We present a statistical analysis of the largest X-ray survey of nearby spiral galaxies in which diffuse emission has been separated from discrete source contributions. Regression and rank-order correlation analyses are used to compare X-ray properties such as total, source and diffuse luminosities, and diffuse emission temperature, with a variety of physical and multi-wavelength properties, such as galaxy mass, type and activity, and optical and infrared luminosity. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which hot gas and discrete X-ray sources scale with the mass and activity of galaxies, and with the star formation rate. We find that the X-ray properties of starburst galaxies are dependent primarily on their star-forming activity, whilst for more quiescent galaxies, galaxy mass is the more important parameter. One of the most intriguing results is the tight linear scaling between far-infrared and diffuse X-ray luminosity across the sample, even though the hot gas changes from a hydrostatic corona to a free wind across the activity range sampled here.Comment: 13 pages, latex file, 18 postscript figures, to appear in MNRA

    Offspring physiology following the use of IVM, IVF and ICSI: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

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    OnlinePublBackground: Since the birth of the first baby using IVF technology in 1978, over 10 million children have been conceived via ART. Although most aspects of ARTs were developed in animal models, the introduction of these technologies into clinical practice was performed without comprehensive assessment of their long-term safety. The monitoring of these technologies over time has revealed differences in the physiology of babies produced using ARTs, yet due to the pathology of those presenting for treatment, it is challenging to separate the cause of infertility from the effect of treatments offered. The use of systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the impacts of the predominant ART interventions used clinically in human populations on animals produced in healthy fertile populations offers an alternative approach to understanding the long-term safety of reproductive technologies. Objective and Rationale: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the evidence available from animal studies on physiological outcomes in the offspring conceived after IVF, IVM or ICSI, compared to in vivo fertilization, and to provide an overview on the landscape of research in this area. Search Methods: PubMed, Embase and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts were searched for relevant studies published until 27 August 2021. Search terms relating to assisted reproductive technology, postnatal outcomes and mammalian animal models were used. Studies that compared postnatal outcomes between in vitro-conceived (IVF, ICSI or IVM) and in vivo-conceived mammalian animal models were included. In vivo conception included mating, artificial insemination, or either of these followed by embryo transfer to a recipient animal with or without in vitro culture. Outcomes included birth weight, gestation length, cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural characteristics and lifespan. Outcomes: A total of 61 studies in five different species (bovine, equine, murine, ovine and non-human primate) met the inclusion criteria. The bovine model was the most frequently used in IVM studies (32/40), while the murine model was mostly used in IVF (17/20) and ICSI (6/8) investigations. Despite considerable heterogeneity, these studies suggest that the use of IVF or maturation results in offspring with higher birthweights and a longer length of gestation, with most of this evidence coming from studies in cattle. These techniques may also impair glucose and lipid metabolism in male mice. The findings on cardiovascular outcomes and behaviour outcomes were inconsistent across studies. Wider Implications: Conception via in vitro or in vivo means appears to have an influence on measurable outcomes of offspring physiology, manifesting differently across the species studied. Importantly, it can be noted that these measurable differences are noticeable in healthy, fertile animal populations. Thus, common ART interventions may have long-term consequences for those conceived through these techniques, regardless of the pathology underpinning diagnosed infertility. However, due to heterogeneous methods, results and measured outcomes, highlighted in this review, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions. Optimizing animal and human studies that investigate the safety of new reproductive technologies will provide insight into safeguarding the introduction of novel interventions into the clinical setting. Cautiously prescribing the use of ARTs clinically may also be considered to reduce the chance of promoting adverse outcomes in children conceived before long-term safety is confidently documented.Kiri H. Beilby, Ezra Kneebone, Tessa J. Roseboom, Indah M. van Marrewijk, Jeremy G. Thompson, Robert J. Norman, Rebecca L. Robker, Ben Willem J. Mol, and Rui Wan

    Demonstration of the temporal matter-wave Talbot effect for trapped matter waves

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    We demonstrate the temporal Talbot effect for trapped matter waves using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. We investigate the phase evolution of an array of essentially non-interacting matter waves and observe matter-wave collapse and revival in the form of a Talbot interference pattern. By using long expansion times, we image momentum space with sub-recoil resolution, allowing us to observe fractional Talbot fringes up to 10th order.Comment: 17 pages, 7 figure

    Kaon Production and Kaon to Pion Ratio in Au+Au Collisions at \snn=130 GeV

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    Mid-rapidity transverse mass spectra and multiplicity densities of charged and neutral kaons are reported for Au+Au collisions at \snn=130 GeV at RHIC. The spectra are exponential in transverse mass, with an inverse slope of about 280 MeV in central collisions. The multiplicity densities for these particles scale with the negative hadron pseudo-rapidity density. The charged kaon to pion ratios are K+/=0.1610.002(stat)0.024(syst)K^+/\pi^- = 0.161 \pm 0.002 {\rm (stat)} \pm 0.024 {\rm (syst)} and K/=0.1460.002(stat)0.022(syst)K^-/\pi^- = 0.146 \pm 0.002 {\rm (stat)} \pm 0.022 {\rm (syst)} for the most central collisions. The K+/K^+/\pi^- ratio is lower than the same ratio observed at the SPS while the K/K^-/\pi^- is higher than the SPS result. Both ratios are enhanced by about 50% relative to p+p and p\bar{\rm p}+p collision data at similar energies.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, 1 tabl

    Azimuthal anisotropy and correlations in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV

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    We present the first measurement of directed flow (v1v_1) at RHIC. v1v_1 is found to be consistent with zero at pseudorapidities \eta from -1.2 to 1.2, then rises to the level of a couple of percent over the range 2.4<<42.4 < |\eta| < 4. The latter observation is similar to data from NA49 if the SPS rapidities are shifted by the difference in beam rapidity between RHIC and SPS. Back-to-back jets emitted out-of-plane are found to be suppressed more if compared to those emitted in-plane, which is consistent with {\it jet quenching}. Using the scalar product method, we systematically compared azimuthal correlations from p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions. Flow and non-flow from these three different collision systems are discussed.Comment: Quark Matter 2004 proceeding, 4 pages, 3 figure

    Azimuthal anisotropy: the higher harmonics

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    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v_4) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v_4 is about a factor of 10 smaller than v_2. For the sixth (v_6) and eighth (v_8) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures, contribution to the Quark Matter 2004 proceeding

    Strange Resonance Production in p+p and Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

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    Resonance yields and spectra from elementary p+p and Au+Au collisions at sNN=\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 200 GeV from the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented and discussed in terms of chemical and thermal freeze-out conditions. Thermal models do not adequately describe the yields of the resonance production in central Au+Au collisions. The approach to include elastic hadronic interactions between chemical freeze-out and thermal freeze-out suggests a time of >\Delta \tau>5 fm/c.Comment: 4 pages, 7 figures, proceedings of the Quark Matter 2004, in Oakland, California, to be published in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physic

    Identified particles at large transverse momenta in STAR in Au+Au collisions @ sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

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    We report measurements of the ratios of identified hadrons (pi,K,p,Lambda) in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV as a function of both collision centrality and transverse momentum (p_T). Ratios of anti-baryon to baryon yields are independent of p_T within 2<p_T <6 GeV/c indicating that, for such a range, our measurements are inconsistent with theoretical pQCD calculations predicting a decrease due to a stronger contribution from valence quark scattering. For both strange and non-strange species, a strong baryon enhancement relative to meson yields is observed as a function of collision centrality in this intermediate p_T region, leading to p/pi and Lambda/K ratios greater than unity. The nuclear modification factor, R_cp (central relative to peripheral collisions), is used to illustrate the interplay between jet quenching and hadron production. The physics implications of these measurements are discussed with reference to different theoretical models.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures. Proceedings of Quark Matter 2004 Conference, Jan 2004, Oakland, USA. Submitted to Journal of Physics
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