52 research outputs found

    International Residential Real Estate Brokerage Fees and Implications for the US Brokerage Industry

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    It is commonly understood that residential real estate brokerage fees in the US tend to run 6% or 7% within local markets for existing property resales. Exceptions to these historically uniform going rates are starting to appear, and utilization of the internet will provide new efficiencies that should lead to lower commission rates in the future. One possible indication of where the long term commission rates may head, should price competition increase, is provided by a review of commission rates around the world. This study is a first attempt to gather such data and begin the process of global comparisons. Most industrialized country brokerage rates are significantly below those of the US, although there are clearly differences in the services provided, red tape, and liabilities, as well as information access. An exploratory model attempts to explain variations in fees around the world and deepen our understanding of possible equilibriums for US firms should price competition increase.Brokerage, Commissions, International, Internet, Future

    ACross-Sectional Analysis of CapRates by MSA

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    Much attention has been paid to capitalization rates or “cap rates?defined as the net operating income over transaction price, also known as a “going-in?current yield on commercial real estate when calculated at the time of purchase. We know that there are a number of global factors that drive capital markets and required rates of return that help to explain observed cap rates over time, but we know little about factors driving the geographical cross-sectional variation of these cap rates. Why are cap rates for similar sized and type property so much lower or higher in one metropolitan statistical area than another? Using data from Real Capital Analytics for multifamily properties we explore several models that combine the expected influences from housing demand growth, supply constraints, liquidity risk and the interaction of these. We document a very strong and robust relation between supply constraints and cap rates as well as evidence of capital flowing from larger markets to smaller markets in recent years. We also find weak but generally supportive evidence of influences from expected growth rates, liquidity and other risk factors.

    Workplace Trends in Office Space: Implications for Future Office Demand

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    Forthcoming in the Journal of Corporate Real Estate Abstract Purpose -This study examines the trends in space per office worker and the influence of a number of factors on the ability to reduce space per worker. These trends are important in that they impact future office demand along with property values. Methodology -Using both survey ane empirical data a simulation model is used to examine the impact on space per worker over the course of a typical lease. Factors considered include the length of lease, the worker growth rate of the firm, turnover and time to fill positions, the type of organizational management hierarchy, whether dedicated or non-dedicated space is utilized and firm policies towards working out of the traditional office. Findings -Space per worker will continue to decline over time, yet collaborative work environments and the effects of traditional management and cultural momentum suggest that downsizing will take time. Counter to the initial hypothesis growing tenants do not overconsume space in the early years but rather tend to renegotiate leases when growth spurs the need for more space. Practical Implications -Forecasters of office space demand must input an estimate of the growth in professional employment and then apply a space per worker assumption. This assumption in most markets will be declining, by as much as 30% over several years. Washington DC is already being affected by downsizing, yet most markets with reasonably good economic growth will be able to offset most of this transition to more intensively used space. Originality/Value -This is the first paper to try and reconcile the views of commercial real estate owners and operators with those of corporate space planners, who both have opposite sides of the same lease. It is also the first to point out the explicit reasons why downsizing efforts are sometimes not as effective as expected

    Determination of the intramammary dose of benzylpenicillin required to maintain an adequate concentration in the milk to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria in the clinically normal udder for 24 hr

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    The aim of this study was to determine the intramammary dose of benzylpenicillin required to maintain a concentration in the milk above the MIC for the Gram-positive bacteria that cause mastitis. The product used in this study was a commercially available procaine benzylpenicillin in an oily suspension with micronized particles. Three dose levels were used: 200,000, 300,000, and 600,000IU. Concentrations of benzylpenicillin in cow milk and plasma were determined after a single intramammary dose was administered into one quarter of each of the five cows in each treatment group. Samples were analyzed using an HPLC-MS/MS method, which was validated during the study. Concentrations in the milk were well above the MIC for the target pathogens for all doses tested. There was a linear dose-dependent increase in the mean AUCs of benzylpenicillin concentrations in plasma and milk. At the first milking, 12hr after dosing, there was a significant difference between the mean milk benzylpenicillin concentrations in cows treated with a dose of 600,000IU, and those treated with 200,000 or 300,000IU. Although this study shows a linear relationship between the dose of procaine benzylpenicillin administered and the concentration in the milk in the healthy udder, it would be useful to conduct studies on cows with mastitis to define the optimum dose and duration of intramammary treatment with benzylpenicillin.Peer reviewe

    The Grizzly, October 16, 1990

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    Olin Walkway Changes the Face of Ursinus • Congressional Candidate Lewis Du Pont Smith Spurs Debate • The Minority Student Union: A Step Toward Diversity • USEAC Conference Bolsters Environmental Activism • Father Changes • Reflecting on Rosen • New Hang-out • The Replacements • Upcoming Berman • Cross Country Runs On • Soccer Wins Two • Netters Upset • Hockey Splits • Grubb Predicts Again • Football Refuses To Give Up • Letters: Complain, but Don\u27t Steal; Positive Pledging; Wismer Food: Quick Service and Healthy Variety • A Contradiction in American Beliefs • This is America? • A Spectacular Devicehttps://digitalcommons.ursinus.edu/grizzlynews/1261/thumbnail.jp

    The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex

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    The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Conversion Discriminative Analysis on Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Multiple Cortical Features from MR Images

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    Neuroimaging measurements derived from magnetic resonance imaging provide important information required for detecting changes related to the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical features and changes play a crucial role in revealing unique anatomical patterns of brain regions, and further differentiate MCI patients from normal states. Four cortical features, namely, gray matter volume, cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature, were explored for discriminative analysis among three groups including the stable MCI (sMCI), the converted MCI (cMCI), and the normal control (NC) groups. In this study, 158 subjects (72 NC, 46 sMCI, and 40 cMCI) were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. A sparse-constrained regression model based on the l2-1-norm was introduced to reduce the feature dimensionality and retrieve essential features for the discrimination of the three groups by using a support vector machine (SVM). An optimized strategy of feature addition based on the weight of each feature was adopted for the SVM classifier in order to achieve the best classification performance. The baseline cortical features combined with the longitudinal measurements for 2 years of follow-up data yielded prominent classification results. In particular, the cortical thickness produced a classification with 98.84% accuracy, 97.5% sensitivity, and 100% specificity for the sMCI–cMCI comparison; 92.37% accuracy, 84.78% sensitivity, and 97.22% specificity for the cMCI–NC comparison; and 93.75% accuracy, 92.5% sensitivity, and 94.44% specificity for the sMCI–NC comparison. The best performances obtained by the SVM classifier using the essential features were 5–40% more than those using all of the retained features. The feasibility of the cortical features for the recognition of anatomical patterns was certified; thus, the proposed method has the potential to improve the clinical diagnosis of sub-types of MCI and predict the risk of its conversion to Alzheimer's disease

    Quantitative 18F-AV1451 Brain Tau PET Imaging in Cognitively Normal Older Adults, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease Patients

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    Recent developments of tau Positron Emission Tomography (PET) allows assessment of regional neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) deposition in human brain. Among the tau PET molecular probes, 18F-AV1451 is characterized by high selectivity for pathologic tau aggregates over amyloid plaques, limited non-specific binding in white and gray matter, and confined off-target binding. The objectives of the study are (1) to quantitatively characterize regional brain tau deposition measured by 18F-AV1451 PET in cognitively normal older adults (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD participants; (2) to evaluate the correlations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers or Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and 18F-AV1451 PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR); and (3) to evaluate the partial volume effects on 18F-AV1451 brain uptake.Methods: The study included total 115 participants (CN = 49, MCI = 58, and AD = 8) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Preprocessed 18F-AV1451 PET images, structural MRIs, and demographic and clinical assessments were downloaded from the ADNI database. A reblurred Van Cittertiteration method was used for voxelwise partial volume correction (PVC) on PET images. Structural MRIs were used for PET spatial normalization and region of interest (ROI) definition in standard space. The parametric images of 18F-AV1451 SUVR relative to cerebellum were calculated. The ROI SUVR measurements from PVC and non-PVC SUVR images were compared. The correlation between ROI 18F-AV1451 SUVR and the measurements of MMSE, CSF total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) were also assessed.Results:18F-AV1451 prominently specific binding was found in the amygdala, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampus, fusiform, posterior cingulate, temporal, parietal, and frontal brain regions. Most regional SUVRs showed significantly higher uptake of 18F-AV1451 in AD than MCI and CN participants. SUVRs of small regions like amygdala, entorhinal cortex and parahippocampus were statistically improved by PVC in all groups (p < 0.01). Although there was an increasing tendency of 18F-AV-1451 SUVRs in MCI group compared with CN group, no significant difference of 18F-AV1451 deposition was found between CN and MCI brains with or without PVC (p > 0.05). Declined MMSE score was observed with increasing 18F-AV1451 binding in amygdala, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampus, and fusiform. CSF p-tau was positively correlated with 18F-AV1451 deposition. PVC improved the results of 18F-AV-1451 tau deposition and correlation studies in small brain regions.Conclusion: The typical deposition of 18F-AV1451 tau PET imaging in AD brain was found in amygdala, entorhinal cortex, fusiform and parahippocampus, and these regions were strongly associated with cognitive impairment and CSF biomarkers. Although more deposition was observed in MCI group, the 18F-AV-1451 PET imaging could not differentiate the MCI patients from CN population. More tau deposition related to decreased MMSE score and increased level of CSF p-tau, especially in ROIs of amygdala, entorhinal cortex and parahippocampus. PVC did improve the results of tau deposition and correlation studies in small brain regions and suggest to be routinely used in 18F-AV1451 tau PET quantification
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