525 research outputs found

    Visual Research: An Introduction to Research Methodologies in Graphic Design

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    "Visual Research: An Introduction to Research Methodologies in Graphic Design" is a guide to the practice of researching for graphic design projects. This book explains the key terms and theories that underlie design research; examining the importance of audience, communication theory, semiotics and semantics. It features a range of case studies that demonstrate how the use of rigorous research methods can form the basis of effective visual communication and design problem solving, eschewing end product analysis for a discussion of the way research feeds into the design process. Synopsis of Chapter 1: The Role of Research in Graphic Design. Research methodologies for graphic design is a broad field which encompasses a wide range of practical and theoretical applications. This chapter introduces the field of design research as both an analytical and a practical tool for graphic designers, and establishes the role of critical thinking as a support to the development of an engaged design practice. The primary theoretical models of design analysis are also introduced, including semiotics, communication theory, systematic approaches, semantics and discourse theory, and their relevance to the wider graphic design profession established. The emphasis here is on why we do what we do and how we can be sure it is effective, through testing, feedback and rigorous approaches to design. The second edition includes twelve new international case studies, end of chapter exercises, a new chapter on Visual Grammar and a foreword by Ellen Lupton, an internationally renowned graphic designer, writer, curator and educator

    A compact to revitalise large-scale irrigation systems using a leadership-partnership-ownership ‘theory of change’

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    In countries with transitional economies such as those found in South Asia, large-scale irrigation systems (LSIS) with a history of public ownership account for about 115 million ha (Mha) or approximately 45% of their total area under irrigation. In terms of the global area of irrigation (320 Mha) for all countries, LSIS are estimated at 130 Mha or 40% of irrigated land. These systems can potentially deliver significant local, regional and global benefits in terms of food, water and energy security, employment, economic growth and ecosystem services. For example, primary crop production is conservatively valued at about US$355 billion. However, efforts to enhance these benefits and reform the sector have been costly and outcomes have been underwhelming and short-lived. We propose the application of a 'theory of change' (ToC) as a foundation for promoting transformational change in large-scale irrigation centred upon a 'global irrigation compact' that promotes new forms of leadership, partnership and ownership (LPO). The compact argues that LSIS can change by switching away from the current channelling of aid finances controlled by government irrigation agencies. Instead it is for irrigators, closely partnered by private, public and NGO advisory and regulatory services, to develop strong leadership models and to find new compensatory partnerships with cities and other river basin neighbours. The paper summarises key assumptions for change in the LSIS sector including the need to initially test this change via a handful of volunteer systems. Our other key purpose is to demonstrate a ToC template by which large-scale irrigation policy can be better elaborated and discussed

    Skistodiaptomus pallidus (Copepoda: Diaptomidae) establishment in New Zealand natural lakes, and its effects on zooplankton community composition

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    The North American calanoid copepod Skistodiaptomus pallidus is an emerging invader globally, with non-indigenous populations recorded from constructed waters in New Zealand, Germany and Mexico since 2000. We examined the effects of S. pallidus establishment on the zooplankton community of a natural lake, Lake Kereta, where it was first recorded in late-2008, coincident with releases of domestically cultured grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Although not present in any of our samples prior to August 2008, S. pallidus was found in all samples collected in the subsequent five years. ANOSIM indicated zooplankton community composition significantly differed between samples collected before and after S. pallidus invasion, whether the invader was included in the analysis or not. Zooplankton species affected most greatly were the copepods Calamoecia lucasi and Mesocyclops sp., which decreased in their relative importance, and the cladocerans Bosmina meridionalis and Daphnia galeata, which increased. Rotifer species were relatively unaffected. As the length of grass carp released were >6.5 cm, direct predatory effects by this species on the zooplankton community are unlikely. Associated reductions in macrophyte biomass could explain increases in the relative abundances of planktonic cladocerans (B. meridionalis and D. galeata). However, the effect of macrophyte reduction by grass carp on zooplankton communities is considered to be limited elsewhere, while the reduced macrophyte biomass cannot explain the decrease in relative abundance of the native planktonic calanoid copepod C. lucasi. Competition between C. lucasi and S. pallidus is the most compelling explanation for the reduction in importance of the native calanoid copepod species. Skistodiaptomus pallidus appears to have undergone a “boom-and-bust” cycle in Lake Kereta, increasing in relative abundance in the first three years following establishment, before declining in importance

    A Participatory Approach to the Development of Centralized Information Systems

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    In this article, we address the development and implementation of centralized information systems in the public sector. More specifically, we are concerned with implementation of such systems where a central governmental agency is collecting information from a number of similar institutions; for example, hospitals and colleges. It is our contention that the numerous problems traditionally associated with such systems often stem from the lack of a realistic participatory approach in the development and implementation of the system. This article discusses the participatory approach to the development and implementation of such a system - the Ontario College Information System (OCIS), a computer-based information system containing information on Ontario's twenty-two Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology.Il s'agit, dans la présente étude, de l'élaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des systèmes d'information centralisés dans le secteur public. Plus précisément, nous nous préoccupons de l'exécution de tels systèmes là où une agence gouvernementale centrale se charge de la cueillette d'information pour plusieurs institutions semblables, par exemple, les hôpitaux et les collèges. Nous soutenons que les nombreux problèmes associés traditionnellement avec de tels systèmes sont dérivés souvent de l'absence d'approche réaliste de participation dans l'élaboration et la mise en oeuvre du système. Cette étude discute de l'approche de participation pour l'élaboration et la mise en oeuvre du système appelé le Ontario College Information System (OCIS) - un système de données informatisées sur les 22 collèges de lettres et de technologie appliquées en Ontario

    Kidney stones: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management

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    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing, and approximately 12 000 hospital admissions every year are due to this condition. This article will use a case study to focus on a patient diagnosed with a calcium oxalate kidney stone. It will discuss the affected structures in relation to kidney stones and describe the pathology of the condition. Investigations for kidney stones, differential diagnosis and diagnosis, possible complications and prognosis, will be discussed. Finally, a detailed account of management strategies for the patient with kidney stones will be given, looking at pain management, medical procedures and dietary interventions. </jats:p

    Document: we interrupt the programme

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    We Interrupt the Programme is a designer’s equivalent of an artist’s book. It is focused on experimental works which put words and images together collaboratively in order to construct new narratives and meanings. Together with a range of images which visualise a representative sample of the experimental work, the volume is also concerned with a critical discourse on the problems inherent in a ‘practice only’ approach to graphic design and advances instead the concept of the ‘reflective practitioner’. It specifically focuses on the responsibilities (political, social, cultural, professional and ethical) of the graphic designer and the relationships between graphic design and communication/language. It questions the way in which graphic design is thought to be reactive rather than pro-active and highlights the importance of graphic design transcending the definitions of craft, trade and profession. The research methods comprised experimental collaborations with a number of institutions and forae in order to hold experimental workshops, work in progress exhibitions/symposia. These experimental collaborations included inviting participants involved in the events cited above to combine words with images to construct new narratives. The process undertaken framed the research and enabled it contribute to debates within the graphic design discipline

    Report and Recommendations on Strategies for Engaging Young Adults in the Historic Environment

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    This report is submitted by HEACS, the Historic Environment Advisory Council for Scotland, which was established in 2003 to provide Scottish Ministers with strategic advice on issues affecting the historic environment. In its second term HEACS was asked by Scottish Ministers: 'What strategies could be developed for attracting young adults to get engaged in protecting, conserving, understanding and enjoying the historic environment?' Young adults have been defined for the purposes of this report as those aged between 16 and 24 inclusive. Research was commissioned from Applejuice Consultants in 2008 to identify case studies, from the UK, Europe and North America, of good practice and successful outcomes in engaging young adults in the historic environment, with a view to assessing which approaches might be most applicable in Scotland. The case studies report should be read in conjunction with this report and has also been submitted to the Minister. The wording of the task set for HEACS implies that young adults are insufficiently engaged in the historic environment. HEACS sought to test this assumption by gathering baseline data on young adults' involvement. This proved surprisingly difficult. The lack of data is a problem in itself, and there is also a lack of consistency in the data that has been collected. There is a need to improve baseline data in order to monitor trends and evaluate the impact of policies, strategies and initiatives. A number of recommendations are made to address this issue. In Scotland we have an annual cohort of 50-55,000 young Scots making a total of about 450,000 within the 16-24 age range (inclusive) at any one time. Young adults therefore form a significant proportion of the population of Scotland

    Visual Research: An Introduction to Research Methodologies in Graphic Design, 2nd Edition

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    Completely revised and updated book on practical research methods in graphic design, 1st edition originally published 2005. Course Reader titles are designed to support visual arts students throughout the lifetime of an undergraduate degree. Packed with examples from students and professionals and fully illustrated with clear diagrams and inspiring imagery, they offer an essential exploration of the subject. Visual Research is designed to lead you through the key skills of research methods in the study and practice of graphic design. The book focuses on defining a self-initiated research question, deciding on a suitable methodology and undertaking a research-led graphic design project as a student at undergraduate or postgraduate level. This second edition includes eleven new case studies as well as end of chapter exercises, a new chapter on Visual Grammar and a foreword by Ellen Lupton, an internationally renowned graphic designer, writer, curator and educator

    Visual Research: An Introduction to Research Methods in Graphic Design, 3rd Edition

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    Packed with more than 200 colour illustrations, Visual Research explores a range of research methods that can be used by graphic designers and visual communicators in the development of clear and purposeful design solutions. The book introduces key terms and theories that underlie design research; examining the importance of visual grammar and design literacy, audience, communication theory and semiotics. Each chapter features case studies that demonstrate how the use of research methods can form the basis of effective visual communication and design problem solving, eschewing end product analysis for a discussion of the way research feeds into the design process. The third edition features new case studies in each chapter, updated design exercises and a new chapter on design-led tools and information design methods, in relation to both print and on-screen design. [Source: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/visual-research-9781474232913/

    The contribution of OCTN1/2 variants within the IBD5 locus to disease susceptibility and severity in Crohn's disease

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    Background and Aims: Recent data suggest that polymorphisms in the organic cation transporter (OCTN) genes OCTN1 (SLC22A4) and OCTN2 (SLC22A5) represent disease-causing mutations within the IBD5 locus (chromosome 5q31). We investigated associations with disease susceptibility, phenotype, and evidence for epistasis with CARD15 in 679 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: A total of 374 patients with CD, 305 patients with UC, and 294 healthy controls (HCs) were studied. Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphisms IGR2096, IGR2198, and IGR2230, OCTN1 variant (SLC22A4 1672C→T), and OCTN2 variant (SLC22A5 −207G→C) was performed using the TaqMan system. Results: The IBD5 OCTN1 and OCTN2 polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium (D′, >0.959). IGR2198 variant allele frequency (49.1% vs 40.8%; P = .0046) and homozygosity (21% vs 14.8%; P = .044) were associated with CD versus HCs. Variant allelic frequency of OCTN1 (53.6% vs 43%; P = .0008) and OCTN2 (56.1% vs 48.4%; P = .0092) polymorphisms and homozygosity for the OCTN1/2-TC haplotype (28.4% vs 16%; P = .0042) were associated with CD versus HCs. IGR2198 homozygosity and TC homozygosity were associated with stricturing/penetrating disease at follow-up (P = .011 and P = .011, respectively) and disease progression (P = .038 and P = .049, respectively) on univariate analysis and with need for surgery on multivariate analysis (P = .016 and P = .004, respectively). In the absence of the IBD5 risk haplotype, no association of OCTN1/2 variants with CD was detected. No associations were seen with UC. Conclusions: The IBD5 locus influences susceptibility, progression, and need for surgery in CD. However, the contribution of OCTN1/2 variants is not independent of the IBD5 haplotype; a causative role for these genes remains plausible but is not yet proven. Further genetic, functional, and expression data are now required. </p
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