7 research outputs found

    Genetic and Technological Characterisation of Vineyard-and Winery-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria

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    Vineyard-and winery-associated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from two major PDO regions in Greece, Peza and Nemea, were surveyed. LAB were isolated from grapes, fermenting musts, and winery tanks performing spontaneous malolactic fermentations (MLF). Higher population density and species richness were detected in Nemea than in Peza vineyards and on grapes than in fermenting musts. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus graminis were the most abundant LAB on grapes, while Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in fermenting musts from both regions. No particular structure of Lactobacillus plantarum populations according to the region of origin was observed, and strain distribution seems random. LAB species diversity in winery tanks differed significantly from that in vineyard samples, consisting principally of Oenococcus oeni. Different strains were analysed as per their enological characteristics and the ability to produce biogenic amines (BAs). Winery-associated species showed higher resistance to low pH, ethanol, SO 2 , and CuSO 4 than vineyard-associated isolates. The frequency of BA-producing strains was relatively low but not negligible, considering that certain winery-associated Lactobacillus hilgardii strains were able to produce BAs. Present results show the necessity of controlling the MLF by selected starters in order to avoid BA accumulation in wine

    Understanding Wine through Yeast Interactions

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    Wine is a product of microbial activities and microbe–microbe interactions. Yeasts are the principal microorganisms responsible for the evolution and fulfillment of alcoholic fermentation. Several species and strains coexist and interact with their environment and with each other during the fermentation course. Yeast–yeast interactions occur even from the early stages of fermentation, determining yeast community structure and dynamics during the process. Different types of microbial interactions (e.g., mutualism and commensalism or competition and amensalism) may exert positive or negative effects, respectively, on yeast populations. Interactions are intimately linked to yeast metabolic activities that influence the wine analytical profile and shape the wine character. In this context, much attention has been given during the last years to the interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) and non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast species with respect to their metabolic contribution to wine quality. Yet, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on the interaction mechanisms modulating yeast behavior during mixed culture fermentation, while much less is known about the interactions between the various NS species or between SC and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae (SNC) yeasts. There is still much to learn about their metabolic footprints and the genetic mechanisms that alter yeast community equilibrium in favor of one species or another. Gaining deeper insights on yeast interactions in the grape–wine ecosystem sets the grounds for understanding the rules underlying the function of the wine microbial system and provides means to better control and improve oenological practices

    Yeast Populations Residing on Healthy or Botrytis-Infected Grapes from a Vineyard in Attica, Greece

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    The yeast flora associated with healthy and Botrytis-infected grapes was assessed. Molecular identification methods assigned isolates to six genera and nine species. For the first time Hanseniaspora opuntiae was encountered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. By using DraI, an informative restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern was generated to distinguish H. opuntiae from the closely related organism Hanseniaspora guilliermondii. Botrytis infection resulted in a larger population and greater diversity of yeasts enriched with fermentative or spoilage species

    Yeast Community Structures and Dynamics in Healthy and Botrytis-Affected Grape Must Fermentationsâ–¿

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    Indigenous yeast population dynamics during the fermentation of healthy and Botrytis-affected grape juice samples from two regions in Greece, Attica and Arcadia, were surveyed. Species diversity was evaluated by using restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analyses of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA) regions of cultivable yeasts. Community-level profiles were also obtained by direct analysis of fermenting samples through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 26S rDNA amplicons. Both approaches revealed structural divergences in yeast communities between samples of different sanitary states or geographical origins. In all cases, Botrytis infection severely perturbed the bioprocess of fermentation by dramatically altering species heterogeneity and succession during the time course. At the beginning and middle of fermentations, Botrytis-affected samples possessed higher levels of biodiversity than their healthy counterparts, being enriched with fermentative and/or spoilage species, such as Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Issatchenkia spp. or Kluyveromyces dobzhanskii and Kazachstania sp. populations that have not been reported before for wine fermentations. Importantly, Botrytis-affected samples exposed discrete final species dominance. Selection was not species specific, and two different populations, i.e., Saccharomyces cerevisiae in samples from Arcadia and Z. bailii in samples from Attica, could be recovered at the end of Botrytis-affected fermentations. The governing of wine fermentations by Z. bailii is reported for the first time and could elucidate the origins and role of this particular spoilage microbe for the wine industry. This is the first survey to compare healthy and Botrytis-affected spontaneous fermentations by using both culture-based and -independent molecular methods in an attempt to further illuminate the complex yeast ecology of grape must fermentations

    Genetic and Technological Characterisation of Vineyard- and Winery-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria

    No full text
    Vineyard- and winery-associated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from two major PDO regions in Greece, Peza and Nemea, were surveyed. LAB were isolated from grapes, fermenting musts, and winery tanks performing spontaneous malolactic fermentations (MLF). Higher population density and species richness were detected in Nemea than in Peza vineyards and on grapes than in fermenting musts. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus graminis were the most abundant LAB on grapes, while Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in fermenting musts from both regions. No particular structure of Lactobacillus plantarum populations according to the region of origin was observed, and strain distribution seems random. LAB species diversity in winery tanks differed significantly from that in vineyard samples, consisting principally of Oenococcus oeni. Different strains were analysed as per their enological characteristics and the ability to produce biogenic amines (BAs). Winery-associated species showed higher resistance to low pH, ethanol, SO2, and CuSO4 than vineyard-associated isolates. The frequency of BA-producing strains was relatively low but not negligible, considering that certain winery-associated Lactobacillus hilgardii strains were able to produce BAs. Present results show the necessity of controlling the MLF by selected starters in order to avoid BA accumulation in wine
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