1,355 research outputs found

    Primary Energy Consumption in China and its Environmental Impact

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    This paper is a literature survey of the primary energy consumption in China since 1978 and its impact on environment. The high dependence on fossil energy resources, coal in particular, has together with the rapid growth of energy consumption during the past decade increased the outlet of pollutants to air, soil and water. The paper focuses on air pollutions in the first hand. The development from 1978 until around 2010 is described and discussed. The scientific articles found are mostly funded or influenced by Chinese authorities. Therefore the paper also reviews some environmental NGO’s and newspapers to get a counter weight. This has supported the view that there is an urgent need for action in China to stop degradation of the environment. A handful of options to reduce the environmental impact of primary energy consumption are discussed together with the challenges China faces today. The urgency for action is obvious and the question to be answered in the near future is if the government in China has the capacity to implement the options discussed

    Multinationell match

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    BRICs – their impact on global environment

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    The BRIC countries have been in a process of fast economic growth for more than a decade and the growth seems to continue. Economic growth is often linked to the use of fossil fuels and the release of greenhouse gases. The accumulation in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases contribute to global warming and the risk for climate change. The objective is to study the impact on global environment of the use of fossil fuels in the BRICs. The impact is limited to carbon dioxide. The historical development of economic growth and carbon dioxide outlet in the individual BRIC countries is reviewed and possible scenarios for the future are discussed to find out the impact of a business as usual scenario on the global environment in the future. The development in the BRICs is compared with the World and the developed regions of the US and EU. The overall conclusion is that the BRICs will be responsible for a major part of the carbon dioxide outlet in the future. The BRICs may, without any further climate policies and programs, be a threat to global environment. There is a significant potential to reduce the carbon dioxide outlet but it is not likely to happen unless the BRICs face a dramatic climate change. However, the position of the individual BRICs is different. Brazil seems to be in the best position to limit the carbon dioxide outlet in the future while China and India compete about the worst position

    HIE-ISOLDE: the technical options

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    The ISOLDE facility at CERN has a long and successful tradition of continuous development and growth in order to meet the scientific requests from the user community. The current situation continues this habit and several projects to increase the scientific scope of the facility through technical developments are under way or envisaged within the medium-term future planning. These developments will result in a transformed facility with the label HIE (High Intensity and Energy)-ISOLDE where the intensity, quality, and energy range of the secondary beams will be substantially improved. They are largely in line with the necessary technical developments towards the future EURISOL facility. This report summarizes these development projects

    Applications using estimates of forest parameters derived from satellite and forest inventory data

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    From the combination of optical satellite data, digital map data, and forest inventory plot data, continuous estimates have been made for several forest parameters (wood volume, age and biomass). Five different project areas within Sweden are presented which have utilized these estimates for a range of applications. The method for estimating the forest parameters was a ”k-Nearest Neighbor” algorithm, which used a weighted mean value of k spectrally similar reference plots. Reference data were obtained from the Swedish National Forest Inventory. The output was continuous estimates at the pixel level for each of the variables estimated. Validation results show that accuracy of the estimates for all parameters was low at the pixel level (e.g., for total wood volume RMSE ranged from 58-80%), with a tendency toward the mean, and an underestimation of higher values while overestimating lower values. However, when the accuracy of the estimates is assessed over larger areas, the errors are lower, with best results being 10% RMSE over a 100 ha aggregation, and 17% RMSE over a 19 ha aggregation. Applications presented in this paper include moose and bird habitat studies, county level planning activities, use as input information to prognostic programs, and computation of statistics on timber volume within drainage basins and smaller land holdings. This paper provides a background on the kNN method and gives examples of how end users are currently applying satellite-produced estimation data such as these

    Tactile Tourism: Tourist Attractions to Touch

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    The present article explores tourist attractions that include touch as a significant component of the tourist’s place-related experience. We have chosen to label this phenomenon “tactile tourism”. The tradition of touching attractions is not new but has been a central part of the experience of specific place-related interests for a long time. However, despite its frequent and often significant presence in tourist destinations, few studies in tourism research study the phenomenon. The article is based on a theoretical line of reasoning which starts from a few concrete examples of different places in Europe where we have identified tactile features relevant to tourism. The empirical material for our discussion has been collected partly through e-mail correspondence with tourist organizations in the places selected for the study and partly through articles in social media and other relevant secondary data. This tactile experience contributes a substantial share of the primary enticement of the attraction and simultaneously invests the place with meaning, which in turn attracts tourists

    När har juridiska personer beviljats förvärvstillstånd av lantbruksfastigheter?

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    The purpose of this report is to study when and why legal persons have been allowed to acquire agricultural properties. The ownership of agricultural property is governed by the Land Acquisition Act. The reason for this is because they want to limit legal person owner-ship of agricultural properties. It is believed that a large proportion of pri-vate ownership is healthy and stimulating for the Swedish countryside. There are some exceptions in which legal persons may be able to acquire. This is a review over decisions taken by the authorities. In this report I have studied purchases made between 2008 and 2010. After summarizing those results I compared them against the Land Acquisition Act. My final conclusion is that the authorities followed the law and reasoning in their decision in the same manner as the legislature had in mind
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