6,261 research outputs found

    Future management needs of a "software-driven" science community

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    The work of astronomers is getting more complex and advanced as the progress of computer development occurs. With improved computing capabilities and increased data flow, more sophisticated software is required in order to interpret, and fully exploit, astronomic data. However, it is not possible for every astronomer to also be a software specialist. As history has shown, the work of scientists always becomes increasingly specialised, and we here argue in favour of another, at least partial, split between "programmers" and "interpreters". In this presentation we outline our vision for a new approach and symbiosis between software specialists and scientists, and present its advantages along with a simple test case.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, as presented at SPIE Astronomical instrumentation 201

    A Link to the Past: Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Fitting to Constrain Fundamental Parameters of High-Redshift Galaxies

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    We have a developed a new method for fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to identify and constrain the physical properties of high-redshift (4 < z < 8) galaxies. Our approach uses an implementation of Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (PiMC^2) that allows us to compare observations to arbitrarily complex models and to compute 95% credible intervals that provide robust constraints for the model parameters. The work is presented in 2 sections. In the first, we test PiMC^2 using simulated SEDs to not only confirm the recovery of the known inputs but to assess the limitations of the method and identify potential hazards of SED fitting when applied specifically to high redshift (z>4) galaxies. Our tests reveal five critical results: 1) the ability to confidently constrain metallicity, population ages, and Av all require photometric accuracy better than what is currently achievable (i.e. less than a few percent); 2) the ability to confidently constrain stellar masses (within a factor of two) can be achieved without the need for high-precision photometry; 3) the addition of IRAC photometry does not guarantee that tighter constraints of the stellar masses and ages can be defined; 4) different assumptions about the star formation history can lead to significant biases in mass and age estimates; and 5) we are able to constrain stellar age and Av of objects that are both young and relatively dust free. In the second part of the paper we apply PiMC^2 to 17 4<z<8 objects, including the GRAPES Ly alpha sample (4<z<6), supplemented by HST/WFC3 near-IR observations, and several broad band selected z>6 galaxies. Using PiMC^2, we are able to constrain the stellar mass of these objects and in some cases their stellar age and find no evidence that any of these sources formed at a redshift much larger than z_f=8, a time when the Universe was ~ 0.6 Gyr old.Comment: Submitted to ApJ (Full abstract, 47 pages, 17 figures, 7 tables

    A Link to the Past: Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Fitting to Constrain Fundamental Parameters of High-Redshift Galaxies

    Get PDF
    We have a developed a new method for fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to identify and constrain the physical properties of high-redshift (4 < z < 8) galaxies. Our approach uses an implementation of Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (PiMC^2) that allows us to compare observations to arbitrarily complex models and to compute 95% credible intervals that provide robust constraints for the model parameters. The work is presented in 2 sections. In the first, we test PiMC^2 using simulated SEDs to not only confirm the recovery of the known inputs but to assess the limitations of the method and identify potential hazards of SED fitting when applied specifically to high redshift (z>4) galaxies. Our tests reveal five critical results: 1) the ability to confidently constrain metallicity, population ages, and Av all require photometric accuracy better than what is currently achievable (i.e. less than a few percent); 2) the ability to confidently constrain stellar masses (within a factor of two) can be achieved without the need for high-precision photometry; 3) the addition of IRAC photometry does not guarantee that tighter constraints of the stellar masses and ages can be defined; 4) different assumptions about the star formation history can lead to significant biases in mass and age estimates; and 5) we are able to constrain stellar age and Av of objects that are both young and relatively dust free. In the second part of the paper we apply PiMC^2 to 17 4<z<8 objects, including the GRAPES Ly alpha sample (4<z<6), supplemented by HST/WFC3 near-IR observations, and several broad band selected z>6 galaxies. Using PiMC^2, we are able to constrain the stellar mass of these objects and in some cases their stellar age and find no evidence that any of these sources formed at a redshift much larger than z_f=8, a time when the Universe was ~ 0.6 Gyr old.Comment: Submitted to ApJ (Full abstract, 47 pages, 17 figures, 7 tables

    Higgsing M2 to D2 with gravity: N=6 chiral supergravity from topologically gauged ABJM theory

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    We present the higgsing of three-dimensional N=6 superconformal ABJM type theories coupled to conformal supergravity, so called topologically gauged ABJM theory, thus providing a gravitational extension of previous work on the relation between N M2 and N D2-branes. The resulting N=6 supergravity theory appears at a chiral point similar to that of three-dimensional chiral gravity introduced recently by Li, Song and Strominger, but with the opposite sign for the Ricci scalar term in the lagrangian. We identify the supersymmetry in the broken phase as a particular linear combination of the supersymmetry and special conformal supersymmetry in the original topologically gauged ABJM theory. We also discuss the higgsing procedure in detail paying special attention to the role played by the U(1) factors in the original ABJM model and the U(1) introduced in the topological gauging.Comment: 53 pages, Late

    High power continuous-wave Yb-doped fiber laser with true single-mode output using W-type structure

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    Abstract : We demonstrate 314 W continuous-wave fiber laser output at 1077 nm from a true single-mode Yb-doped fiber core without any sign of stimulated-Raman-Scattering. The suppression of stimulated-Raman-Scattering was obtained by using a W-type waveguide filtering structure

    The stellar content of low redshift BL Lac host galaxies from multicolour imaging

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    We present B-band imaging of 18 low redshift (z<0.3) BL Lac objects for which their host galaxies were previously resolved in the R-band and the near-infrared H-band. For a subset of the objects, also U- and V-band imaging is presented. These data are used to investigate the blue-red-near-infrared colours and the colour gradients of the host galaxies of BL Lacs in comparison with other elliptical galaxies with and without nuclear activity. In all cases galaxies are well represented by an elliptical model, with average absolute magnitude M_B=-21.6+-0.7 and average scale length R_e=7.6+-3.2 kpc. The best-fit B-band Kormendy relation is in reasonable agreement with that obtained for normal ellipticals and radio galaxies. This structural and dynamical similarity indicates that all massive elliptical galaxies can experience nuclear activity without significant perturbation of their global structure. The distributions of the integrated blue/near-infrared colour (with average B-H=3.5+-0.5) and colour gradient (with average Delta(B-R)/Delta(log r)=-0.14+-0.75) of the BL Lac hosts are much wider than those for normal ellipticals, and most BL Lac objects have bluer hosts and/or steeper colour gradients than those in normal ellipticals. The blue colours are likely caused by a young stellar population component, and indicates a link between star formation caused by an interaction/merging event and the onset of the nuclear activity. This result is corroborated by stellar population modelling, indicating a presence of young/intermediate age populations in the majority of the sample, in agreement with low redshift quasar hosts. The lack of strong signs of interaction may require a significant time delay between the event with associated star formation episodes and the start of the nuclear activity.Comment: 16 pages, 10 figure

    Understanding Lyman-alpha emitters

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    This publication contains the conference summary of the Understanding Lyman-alpha Emitters conference held at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg October 6 - 10, 2008. The scope of the conference was to bring together most of the scientists working in the field of Lyman-alpha emitters, whether at low or high redshift, or on observational or theoretical aspects, and to summarise how far the field of study of galaxies with Lyman-alpha emission has come. An outlook towards the future of the field was also desired. As part of the conference, two days were dedicated to in total six discussion sessions. The topics were i) new methods and selection methods, ii) morphology, iii) what can the local Universe observations tell us about the high redshift Universe?, iv) clustering, v) SED fitting and vi) Ly-alpha blobs. The chairs of those sessions were asked to summarise the discussions, as presented in these proceedings.Comment: Workshop summary of the "Understanding Lyman-alpha Emitters" meeting in Heidelberg, Oct. 2008, 49 pages (seven contributions), to be published in New Astronomy Review. Conference home-page, with presentations, is http://www.mpia.de/Public/Aktuelles/Tagungen/lae08/lae08.htm

    The gauge dual of Romans mass

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    We deform the recently proposed holographic duality between the ABJM N=6 Chern-Simons-matter theory and type IIA string theory in AdS4xCP3. We add a non-zero Romans mass F_0, whose dual we identify as the sum of the Chern-Simons levels for the two gauge groups. One can naturally identify four different theories, with different amounts of supersymmetry and of flavor symmetry.Comment: 26 pages. v4: Corrected the sign for the probe brane potentia
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