145 research outputs found

    A latent class analysis of parental bipolar disorder: examining associations with offspring psychopathology

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    Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heterogeneous, and course variations are associated with patient outcomes. This diagnostic complexity challenges identification of patients in greatest need of intervention. Additionally, course variations have implications for offspring risk. First, latent class analysis (LCA) categorized parents with BD based on salient illness characteristics: BD type, onset age, polarity of index episode, pole of majority of episodes, rapid cycling, psychosis, anxiety comorbidity, and substance dependence. Fit indices favored three parental classes with some substantively meaningful patterns. Two classes, labeled ÔÇťEarlier-Onset Bipolar-IÔÇŁ (EO-I) and ÔÇťEarlier-Onset Bipolar-IIÔÇŁ (EO-II), comprised parents who had a mean onset age in mid-adolescence, with EO-I primarily BD-I parents and EO-II entirely BD-II parents. The third class, labeled ÔÇťLater-Onset BDÔÇŁ (LO) had an average onset age in adulthood. Classes also varied on probability of anxiety comorbidity, substance dependence, psychosis, rapid cycling, and pole of majority of episodes. Second, we examined rates of disorders in offspring (ages 4ÔÇô33, Mage=13.46) based on parental latent class membership. Differences emerged for offspring anxiety disorders only such that offspring of EO-I and EO-II parents had higher rates, compared to offspring of LO parents, particularly for daughters. Findings may enhance understanding of BD and its nosologyThis study was funded by two Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (formerly NARSAD) Independent Investigator Awards (PI: Nierenberg), a Brain & Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award (PI: Henin) generously supported in part by the SHINE Initiative, and an MGH Claflin Award (PI: Henin). We thank David A. Langer, Ph.D., Thomas M. Olino, Ph.D., and Meredith Lotz Wallace, Ph.D. for their consultation. (Brain & Behavior Research Foundation; Brain & Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award; SHINE Initiative; MGH Claflin Award)Accepted manuscrip

    Transdiagnostic treatment of bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety using the Unified Protocol for Emotional Disorders: A pilot feasibility and acceptability trial

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    BACKGROUND Comorbid anxiety in bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with greater illness severity, reduced treatment response, and greater impairment. Treating anxiety in the context of BD is crucial for improving illness course and outcomes. The current study examined the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy, as an adjunctive treatment to pharmacotherapy for BD and comorbid anxiety disorders. METHODS Twenty-nine patients with BD and at least one comorbid anxiety disorder were randomized to pharmacotherapy treatment-as-usual (TAU) or TAU with 18 sessions of the UP (UP+TAU). All patients completed assessments every four weeks to track symptoms, functioning, emotion regulation and temperament. Linear mixed-model regressions were conducted to track symptom changes over time and to examine the relationship between emotion-related variables and treatment response. RESULTS Satisfaction ratings were equivalent for both treatment groups. Patients in the UP+TAU group evidenced significantly greater reductions over time in anxiety and depression symptoms (Cohen's d's>0.80). Baseline levels of neuroticism, perceived affective control, and emotion regulation ability predicted magnitude of symptom change for the UP+TAU group only. Greater change in perceived control of emotions and emotion regulation skills predicted greater change in anxiety related symptoms. LIMITATIONS This was a pilot feasibility and acceptability trial; results should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with the UP+TAU was rated high in patient satisfaction, and resulted in significantly greater improvement on indices of anxiety and depression relative to TAU. This suggests that the UP may be a feasible treatment approach for BD with comorbid anxiety.This work was supported by a Postdoctoral National Research Service Award from the National Institutes of Health [F32 MH098490] to K. Ellard. (F32 MH098490 - Postdoctoral National Research Service Award from the National Institutes of Health)Accepted manuscrip

    Evaluation of Harmful Algal Bloom Outreach Activities

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    With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs) worldwide, healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling to provide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since 1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year free Aquatic Toxins Hotline (1ÔÇô888ÔÇô232ÔÇô8635) available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-related illness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot study evaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingual HAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. The majority (68%) of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials

    Adrift in time:The subjective experience of circadian challenge during COVID-19 amongst people with mood disorders

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    Social distancing/lockdown policies during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may alter social rhythms of people through imposition of restrictions on normal daily activities. This may in turn challenge circadian function, particularly in people with mood disorders. Although objective data describing the relationship between circadian disturbances and mood disorders exist, data regarding the subjective experience of circadian challenge is sparse, and its association with mood symptoms is unclear. The present qualitative study was one component of a mixed-methods multi-national project, which took advantage of widespread disruption to daily routines due to Government COVID-related lockdowns during 2020. The Behavior Emotion and Timing during COVID-19 (BEATCOVID) survey study included three open questions generating qualitative data on participants' subjective experience of social disruption due to social distancing/lockdown policies, two of which asked about the barriers and opportunities for stabilizing routines. Responses were coded and analyzed using Thematic Analysis. A total of N = 997 participants responded to at least one of the free-text questions. Four themes were identified: 1) loss of daily timed activities, 2) role of social interaction, 3) altered time perception and 4) disruption to motivation and associated psychological effects. Themes were organized into a provisional heuristic map, generating hypotheses for future research centered on the new concept of 'psychological drift.

    Do Sleep Disturbances Predict or Moderate the Response to Psychotherapy in Bipolar Disorder?

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    This study examined whether sleep disturbance predicted or moderated responses to psychotherapy in participants who participated in STEP-BD, a national, multi-site study that examined the effectiveness of different treatment combinations for bipolar disorder. Participants received either a brief psychosocial intervention called collaborative care (CC; n=130), or intensive psychotherapy (IP; n=163), with study-based pharmacotherapy. Participants (N=243) were defined as current (past week) short sleepers (<6 hours/night), normal sleepers (6.5-8.5 hours/night), and long sleepers (Ôëą9 hours/night), according to reported average nightly sleep duration the week before randomization. Sleep disturbances did not predict the likelihood of recovery nor time until recovery from a depressive episode. There was no difference in recovery rates between IP versus CC for normal sleepers, and medium effect sizes were observed for differences in short and long sleepers. In this study, sleep did not play a major role in predicting or moderating response to psychotherapy in bipolar disorder

    Family history of mood disorder and characteristics of major depressive disorder: A STAR*D (sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression) study

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    Wst─Öp. Klinicy┼Ťci rutynowo pytaj─ů pacjent├│w z depresj─ů o wyst─Öpowanie chor├│b psychicznych w rodzinie. Nie wiadomo jednak, czy pacjenci, w kt├│rych rodzinie wyst─Öpowa┼éy tego typu schorzenia r├│┼╝ni─ů si─Ö od os├│b z negatywnym wywiadem rodzinnym w tym kierunku. W badaniu por├│wnano cechy demograficzne i kliniczne du┼╝ej grupy pacjent├│w ambulatoryjnych zg┼éaszaj─ůcych si─Ö do lekarza z powodu depresji bez objaw├│w psychotycznych. Pacjenci udzielili informacji na temat krewnych pierwszego stopnia choruj─ůcych na depresj─Ö lub chorob─Ö afektywn─ů dwubiegunow─ů. Metody. Osoby poddane badaniu rekrutowano do wieloo┼Ťrodkowego badania klinicznego - Sekwencyjne Alternatywy Terapeutyczne w Leczeniu Depresji (STAR*D, Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression). Oceniono r├│┼╝nice w cechach klinicznych i demograficznych u pacjent├│w z dodatnim i ujemnym wywiadem rodzinnym w kierunku zaburze┼ä afektywnych, po skorygowaniu ich pod wzgl─Ödem wieku, p┼éci, rasy i grupy etnicznej. Wyniki. W┼Ťr├│d pacjent├│w z dodatnim wywiadem rodzinnym w kierunku zaburze┼ä afektywnych (n = 2265; 56,5%) przewa┼╝a┼éy kobiety; depresja rozpocz─Ö┼éa si─Ö u nich wcze┼Ťniej ni┼╝ u pacjent├│w z ujemnym wywiadem rodzinnym w kierunku zaburze┼ä afektywnych (n = 1740; 43,5%). Nie znaleziono znacz─ůcych r├│┼╝nic w zakresie objaw├│w depresyjnych, nasilenia depresji, jej nawrotowo┼Ťci, podtyp├│w choroby, czy te┼╝ funkcjonowania w ci─ůgu dnia. Wnioski. Kobiety 2-krotnie cz─Ö┼Ťciej ni┼╝ m─Ö┼╝czy┼║ni zg┼éasza┼éy wyst─Öpowanie zaburze┼ä afektywnych w rodzinie, dodatni wywiad rodzinny wi─ůza┼é si─Ö z wcze┼Ťniejszym wyst─ůpieniem choroby u probanta. M┼éody wiek w chwili zachorowania na depresj─Ö wydaje si─Ö charakteryzowa─ç rodzinny (a co za tym idzie uwarunkowany genetycznie) podtyp depresji, co jest zgodne z wynikami wcze┼Ťniejszych bada┼ä.Introduction. Clinicians routinely ask patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) about their family history. It is unknown, however, if patients who report a positive family history differ from those who do not. This study compared the demographic and clinical features of a large cohort of treatment-seeking outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD who reported that they did or did not have at least one firstdegree relative who had either MDD or bipolar disorder. Methods. Subjects were recruited for the STAR*D multicenter trial. Differences in demographic and clinical features for patients with and without a family history of mood disorders were assessed after correcting for age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Results. Patients with a family history of mood disorder (n = 2265; 56.5%) were more frequently women and had an earlier age of onset of depression, as compared to those without such a history (n = 1740; 43.5%). No meaningful differences were found in depressive symptoms, severity, recurrence, depressive subtype, or daily function. Conclusions. Women were twice as likely as men to report a positive family history of mood disorder, and a positive family history was associated with younger age of onset of MDD in the proband. Consistent with prior research, early age of onset appears to define a familial and, by extension, genetic subtype of major depressive disorder

    Efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of diseases other than Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    The intestinal microbiome has been identified as a key modifier for a variety of health conditions. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a fast, safe, and effective means by which to modify the intestinal microbiome and potentially treat a variety of health conditions. Despite extensive research of FMT for CDI, there is a lack of clarity informed by systematic synthesis of data regarding the safety and efficacy of FMT for other health conditions. This systematic review used PRISMA guidelines and was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018104243). In March 2020, a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO was conducted. We identified 26 eligible studies. A meta-analysis of FMT for active Ulcerative Colitis (UC) showed that FMT significantly improved rates of clinical remission (OR = 3.634, 95% CI = 1.940 to 6.808, I-2 = 0%, p< .001), clinical response (OR = 2.634, 95% CI = 1.441 to 4.815, I2 = 33%, p = .002) and endoscopic remission (OR = 4.431, 95% CI = 1.901 to 10.324, I2 = 0%, p = .001). With respect to Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a meta-analysis showed no significant change in symptoms following FMT (p = .739). Hepatic disorders, metabolic syndrome, and antibiotic-resistant organisms were conditions with emerging data on FMT. Serious adverse events (AE) were more often reported in control group participants (n = 43) compared with FMT group participants (n = 26). There were similar rates of mild to moderate AE in both groups. Preliminary data suggest that FMT is a potentially safe, well-tolerated and efficacious treatment for certain conditions other than CDI, with evidence for active UC being the most compelling
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