4,818 research outputs found

    Maoism in South Asia: A Comparative Perspective On Ideology, Practice, and Prospects for the 21st Century

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    The Maoists in both India and Nepal have drawn on Maoist theory to analyze their countries as semi-feudal and semi-colonial, setting the stage for Maoist revolutionary movements. The two movements differ in their historical interpretations of communist revolutions and Marxism—the Nepalese Maoists have come to reject Marxist notions of the state, while the Indian Maoists have uncritically upheld the experience of socialist states and communist revolutions. These differences in historical interpretation are intimately linked with the divergent theoretical and practical orientations of the Maoists in both countries, orientations that have emerged due to distinct material conditions that both revolutionary movements have faced. These Maoist movements show that while a movement can utilize Mao’s philosophy and strategy broadly, each country has particular conditions that a revolutionary movement must confront. The communist revolution in China cannot be repeated identically in any country in the world today, and new theoretical and practical orientations must emerge to update and make Maoism effective in the 21st century

    The Optimization of Financial Investment in Project Safety Practices

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    This research paper explains the notable benefits to pursing a comprehensive safety plan complete with the most cost-effective safety practices in the industry. Through communication with environmental health and safety professionals within the construction industry, it was determined that certain safety practices are deemed essential on any active jobsite. Enforcing mandatory jobsite safety training to all individuals entering a jobsite serves as the first line of defense when attempting to protect individuals and mitigate risk. This educational and effective safety practice highlights the potential safety concerns of a jobsite while also mitigating contractor liability if an accident were to occur. From a field management perspective, introducing a “Crane Boss” or other equivalent critical scope management position was viewed as a helpful addition for minimizing risk. Such a position would be responsible for managing the coordination and execution of high-risk scopes such as crane picks or concrete pours serving to decrease the potential for issues when addressing these scopes of work. Both of these safety programs provide great potential for cost savings and other lucrative returns while requiring a small investment of resources. For these reasons, such implementations are considered essential additions to any productive and successful jobsite

    MuMiN:A Large-Scale Multilingual Multimodal Fact-Checked Misinformation Social Network Dataset

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    Misinformation is becoming increasingly prevalent on social media and in news articles. It has become so widespread that we require algorithmic assistance utilising machine learning to detect such content. Training these machine learning models require datasets of sufficient scale, diversity and quality. However, datasets in the field of automatic misinformation detection are predominantly monolingual, include a limited amount of modalities and are not of sufficient scale and quality. Addressing this, we develop a data collection and linking system (MuMiN-trawl), to build a public misinformation graph dataset (MuMiN), containing rich social media data (tweets, replies, users, images, articles, hashtags) spanning 21 million tweets belonging to 26 thousand Twitter threads, each of which have been semantically linked to 13 thousand fact-checked claims across dozens of topics, events and domains, in 41 different languages, spanning more than a decade. The dataset is made available as a heterogeneous graph via a Python package (mumin). We provide baseline results for two node classification tasks related to the veracity of a claim involving social media, and demonstrate that these are challenging tasks, with the highest macro-average F1-score being 62.55% and 61.45% for the two tasks, respectively. The MuMiN ecosystem is available at https://mumin-dataset.github.io/, including the data, documentation, tutorials and leaderboards.Comment: 9+3 page

    Experimental approximation of the Jones polynomial with DQC1

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    We present experimental results approximating the Jones polynomial using 4 qubits in a liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. This is the first experimental implementation of a complete problem for the deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit model of quantum computation, which uses a single qubit accompanied by a register of completely random states. The Jones polynomial is a knot invariant that is important not only to knot theory, but also to statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. The implemented algorithm is a modification of the algorithm developed by Shor and Jordan suitable for implementation in NMR. These experimental results show that for the restricted case of knots whose braid representations have four strands and exactly three crossings, identifying distinct knots is possible 91% of the time.Comment: 5 figures. Version 2 changes: published version, minor errors corrected, slight changes to improve readabilit

    Evaluation of a modified application procedure of glare reducing skin coatings as utilized in athletics

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    Traditionally, athletes who have applied glare reducing skin coatings have applied it as a black stripe on the cheek bone directly under the eyes. This substance was found to enhance contrast sensitivity when applied in the normal manner in an investigation by Dayton, Elm, Houle, Thomas, Reichow, and Roth. This paper will address the ability of the Cramer glare reducing skin coating to further increase contrast sensitivity utilizing a modified application technique . Utilizing the Arden Plates, contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured on 60 subjects ages 15-30 in a high glare environment using three methods; without the product, with the glare reducing product applied the traditional way, and with the product applied in a more arcuate manner. With the intense glare source on, subjects\u27 CS increased significantly at all spatial frequencies tested when wearing the SGB in the modified manner. At .35 and 1 .4 cpd, significant improvement was noted when comparing no Sun Glare Black (SGB) and the modified application technique. At .7 cpd, significant improvement was shown when comparing no SGB and SGB applied in the modified fashion, and when comparing traditional and modified techniques. At 2.8 cpd, a significant improvement was revealed between no SGB and SGB applied traditionally, and when comparing no SGB and the modified application technique

    A critical appraisal of “Afferent stimulation inhibits abnormal cutaneous reflex activity in patients with spinal cord injury spasticity syndrome”

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    A critical appraisal of “Afferent stimulation inhibits abnormal cutaneous reflex activity in patients with spinal cord injury spasticity syndrome”. Review of the methods used by Gomez-Soriano et al to assess the effects of Electrical stimulation on Spasticity. Critiquing the methods, results and discussion of their finding. Gomez-Soriano et al did an exceptional job of describing in detail their methods and reasoning behind them. Their results are sound and backed up by existing literature. Their exploration of the significance of their findings is in-depth and thorough. Limitations of their design and findings are outlined clearly. Conclusions are concise and appropriate to their results. The intervention used could potentially benefit many people in the future

    The Nonreligious – Nonspiritual Scale (NRNSS): Measuring Everything from Atheists to Zionists

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    Although hundreds of measures of personal religiousness and spirituality exist, none are capable of reliably and validly assessing individuals who identify as nonreligious and nonspiritual. There is a need to develop a valid and reliable measure of (non)religiousness and (non)spirituality. This article discusses these problems, and presents the development and initial validation of a 17-item Nonreligious-Nonspiritual Scale (NRNSS) across three studies. The NRNSS exhibited high internal consistency (α \u3e .94) and high test-retest reliability (r = .92). Two exploratory and one confirmatory factor analysis of the NRNSS supported the hypothesized two-factor solution: (a) institutional religiousness and (b) individualistic spirituality. The NRNSS also demonstrated convergent validity through theoretically-expected correlations with established measures of religiousness and spirituality (the Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Religiosity, Humanistic Morality, and Traditional Religious Morality scales). In summary, the NRNSS may work as an initial attempt to address the limitations of other scales for capturing how religious/nonreligious/nonspiritual individuals are

    Consensus mutagenesis reveals that non-helical regions influence thermal stability of horseradish peroxidase

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    The enzyme horseradish peroxidase has many uses in biotechnology but a stabilized derivative would have even wider applicability. To enhance thermal stability, we applied consensus mutagenesis (used successfully with other proteins) to recombinant horseradish peroxidase and generated five single-site mutants. Unexpectedly, these mutations had greater effects on steady-state kinetics than on thermal stability. Only two mutants (T102A, T110V) marginally exceeded the wild type's thermal stability (4% and 10% gain in half-life at 50 °C respectively); the others (Q106R, Q107D, I180F) were less stable than wild type. Stability of a five-fold combination mutant matched that of Q106R, the least-stable single mutant. These results were perplexing: the Class III plant peroxidases display wide differences in thermal stability, yet the consensus mutations failed to reflect these natural variations. We examined the sequence content of Class III peroxidases to determine if there are identifiable molecular reasons for the stability differences observed. Bioinformatic analysis validated our choice of sites and mutations and generated an archetypal peroxidase sequence for comparison with extant sequences. It seems that both genetic variation and differences in protein stability are confined to non-helical regions due to the presence of a highly conserved alpha-helical structural scaffold in these enzymes

    Addressing contingency in algorithmic (mis)information classification: Toward a responsible machine learning agenda

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    Machine learning (ML) enabled classification models are becoming increasingly popular for tackling the sheer volume and speed of online misinformation and other content that could be identified as harmful. In building these models, data scientists need to take a stance on the legitimacy, authoritativeness and objectivity of the sources of ``truth" used for model training and testing. This has political, ethical and epistemic implications which are rarely addressed in technical papers. Despite (and due to) their reported high accuracy and performance, ML-driven moderation systems have the potential to shape online public debate and create downstream negative impacts such as undue censorship and the reinforcing of false beliefs. Using collaborative ethnography and theoretical insights from social studies of science and expertise, we offer a critical analysis of the process of building ML models for (mis)information classification: we identify a series of algorithmic contingencies--key moments during model development that could lead to different future outcomes, uncertainty and harmful effects as these tools are deployed by social media platforms. We conclude by offering a tentative path toward reflexive and responsible development of ML tools for moderating misinformation and other harmful content online.Comment: Andr\'es Dom\'inguez Hern\'andez, Richard Owen, Dan Saattrup Nielsen and Ryan McConville. 2023. Addressing contingency in algorithmic (mis)information classification: Toward a responsible machine learning agenda. Accepted in 2023 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT '23), June 12-15, 2023, Chicago, United States of America. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 16 page
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