3,674 research outputs found

    Subjective and Objective Measures of the Extent of Governmental Regulations

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    In recent years, three different quantitative studies measuring the extent of regulation in OECD nations have appeared. One analysis is based on an extensive review and quantification of laws and regulations; the other two are based on opinion data of those familiar with these regulations. Despite their very different methodologies and coverage of particular types of governmental regulation, the results of the three studies are significantly correlated, even though they differ in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the three approaches are discussed.Regulatory Reform, Other Topics

    The effect of cyclophosphamide on MSV-H oncogenesis.

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    The effect of cyclophosphamide on MSV-H oncogensis and the immune response of young mice has been investigated. A single, sublethal dose (100 and 50 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide) in 8-day-old mice given 24 h before or after MSV-H infection led to an earlier and lower incidence of tumours in comparison with controls infected only with MSV-H. The protective effect of cyclophosphamide, and the mechanism of action of both cyclophosphamide and MSV-H on the target cells, mesenchymal cells in rapid replication, as well the immunological implications of the findings are discussed

    Organization of aerobactin, hemolysin, and antibacterial resistance genes in lactose negative Escherichia coli strains of serotype O4 isolated from children with dhiarrea

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    Epidemiologically related, non-lactose-fermenting (NLF) Escherichia coli strains of serotype O4 have been isolated at a high frequency from children with diarrhea in Somalia (M. Nicoletti, F. Superti, C. Conti, A. Calconi, and C. Zagaglia, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:524-529, 1988). In order to define the virulence potential of these strains, we characterized the replication properties of their high-molecular-weight plasmids and studied the genetic locations and organization of the aerobactin (aer) and hemolysin (hly) determinants encoded by 23 NLF O4 E. coli strains. Southern blot hybridizations, mobilization assays of nonconjugative plasmids, and incompatibility-exclusion experiments conducted with a conjugative incompatibility group FI (IncFI) plasmid showed that (i) 20 out of the 23 strains examined harbor a 160- to 180-kb IncFI plasmid that shares homology with the basic replicons RepFIA, RepFIB, and (except for the plasmid of one strain) RepFIC, and 22 strains also contain a 40- to 140-kb IncFII plasmid sharing homology with the RepFIIA replicon; (ii) the IncFI plasmid is nonconjugative and carries antibiotic resistance genes; (iii) the aer system is located on the IncFI plasmids and/or the chromosomes in the three strains not harboring IncFI, and it is found in an inverted orientation; (iv) the hly determinants are located on the chromosome, and their genetic organization is well conserved and closely resembles that of the reference hemolytic plasmid pHly152; and (v) Hly- mutants obtained by transposon insertion mutagenesis are not cytotoxic to HeLa cell monolayers, indicating that hemolysin is responsible for the high cytotoxic activity we have previously reported for these strains. The structural organization of the plasmid-encoded aer operon, together with the finding that those plasmids also carry antibiotic resistance genes, indicates that the IncFI plasmid of the NLF O4 E. coli strains studied more closely resembles aer-encoding virulence IncFI Salmonella R plasmids than E. coli ColV plasmids. The data presented here cannot rule out whether the strains examined are potentially intestinal or extraintestinal pathogens. Nevertheless, the genetic organization of the virulence genes, together with the epidemiological behavior and the wide spectrum of antibiotic resistance of the NLF O4 E. coli strains, indicates that these strains are structured as typical E. coli pathogenic isolates of human origin

    Measles in Italy: Viral strains and crossing borders.

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    In 2017, Italy experienced one of the largest outbreaks of measles in recent years, with 5404 notified cases and 4347 confirmed cases. A further 2029 cases were notified during the first 6 months of 2018, and 1516 of them were laboratory-confirmed. The B3 and D8 genotypes were identified as those responsible for the outbreak. Possible transmission routes can be established by monitoring the circulating measles virus strains in support of the national health authorities to warn people and travellers

    Subjective And Objective Measures Of Governmental Regulations In OECD Nations

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    Since government regulations may have an important impact on the macroeconomic performance of market economies, it is necessary to devise quantitative indicators of the regulatory regime, which raises some difficult methodological issues. After reviewing some of these problems, we compare the results of several recent quantitative studies of regulation in OECD nations, some based on an extensive review and quantification of laws and regulations, others based on observational data of those familiar with these regulations. Despite their very different methodologies and coverage of particular types of governmental regulation, the results of the three studies are significantly correlated, which suggests that they all capture the same underlying reality. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Far-infrared absorption and the metal-to-insulator transition in hole-doped cuprates

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    By studying the optical conductivity of BSLCO and YCBCO, we show that the metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) in these hole-doped cuprates is driven by the opening of a small gap at low T in the far infrared. Its width is consistent with the observations of Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy in other cuprates, along the nodal line of the k-space. The gap forms as the Drude term turns into a far-infrared absorption, whose peak frequency can be approximately predicted on the basis of a Mott-like transition. Another band in the mid infrared softens with doping but is less sensitive to the MIT.Comment: To be published on Physical Review Letter

    Optical properties of V2O3 in its whole phase diagram

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    Vanadium sesquioxide V2O3 is considered a textbook example of Mott-Hubbard physics. In this paper we present an extended optical study of its whole temperature/doping phase diagram as obtained by doping the pure material with M=Cr or Ti atoms (V1-xMx)2O3. We reveal that its thermodynamically stable metallic and insulating phases, although macroscopically equivalent, show very different low-energy electrodynamics. The Cr and Ti doping drastically change both the antiferromagnetic gap and the paramagnetic metallic properties. A slight chromium content induces a mesoscopic electronic phase separation, while the pure compound is characterized by short-lived quasiparticles at high temperature. This study thus provides a new comprehensive scenario of the Mott-Hubbard physics in the prototype compound V2O3

    CX3CR1+ Cell–Mediated Salmonella Exclusion Protects the Intestinal Mucosa during the Initial Stage of Infection

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    During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, intestinal CX3CR1(+) cells can either extend transepithelial cellular processes to sample luminal bacteria or, very early after infection, migrate into the intestinal lumen to capture bacteria. However, until now, the biological relevance of the intraluminal migration of CX3CR1(+) cells remained to be determined. We addressed this by using a combination of mouse strains differing in their ability to carry out CX3CR1-mediated sampling and intraluminal migration. We observed that the number of S. Typhimurium traversing the epithelium did not differ between sampling-competent/migration-competent C57BL/6 and sampling-deficient/migration-competent BALB/c mice. In contrast, in sampling-deficient/migration-deficient CX3CR1(-/-) mice the numbers of S. Typhimurium penetrating the epithelium were significantly higher. However, in these mice the number of invading S. Typhimurium was significantly reduced after the adoptive transfer of CX3CR1(+) cells directly into the intestinal lumen, consistent with intraluminal CX3CR1(+) cells preventing S. Typhimurium from infecting the host. This interpretation was also supported by a higher bacterial fecal load in CX3CR1(+/gfp) compared with CX3CR1(gfp/gfp) mice following oral infection. Furthermore, by using real-time in vivo imaging we observed that CX3CR1(+) cells migrated into the lumen moving through paracellular channels within the epithelium. Also, we reported that the absence of CX3CR1-mediated sampling did not affect Ab responses to a noninvasive S. Typhimurium strain that specifically targeted the CX3CR1-mediated entry route. These data showed that the rapidly deployed CX3CR1(+) cell-based mechanism of immune exclusion is a defense mechanism against pathogens that complements the mucous and secretory IgA Ab-mediated system in the protection of intestinal mucosal surface

    Long-term changes in a benthic assemblage associated with artificial reefs

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    The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term development of a hard bottom benthic assemblage over a period of 20 years in an area off the mouth of a large river. The artificial reef of Fregene was selected because benthic assemblage data were available for the period 1981-1992. This artificial reef is located in the mid Tyrrhenian Sea, 5 nautical miles north of the two mouths of the Tevere River (Latium, Italy) and 1.5 nautical miles offshore from Fregene (Rome, Italy). The artificial reef was deployed in March 1981 for fisheries enhancement in 10-14 m of water on a sandy-silty seabed. The Tevere River carries suspended materials and a heavy load of organics since it transports Rome's effluent, resulting in the eutrophic state of area waters. Benthic sampling was conducted in 2001 by SCUBA diving; two standard surfaces of 400 cm 2 were scraped from the vertical walls of the same uppermost block in four different periods. All organisms were identified and counted. The methodology used is the same as that adopted in the previous periods, so that the 2001 data could be compared with past collected data. The benthic assemblage was analysed by cluster analysis using the Bray-Curtis index and clustered using the group average clustering algorithm. The SIMPER procedure was used to identify those taxa that characterize each station group identified by cluster analysis. Changes in benthic assemblages and hydrological trends of the Tevere River were investigated using the cumulative sum series method. The 20-year development of the benthic community, starting from the new substratum, is composed of different phases characterised by different benthic assemblages. In particular five different phases were distinguished: 1. Pioneer species recruitment (May 1981-June 1981); 2. Mytilus galloprovincialis (mussel) dominance (August 1981-November 1983); 3. M. galloprovincialis regression (July 1984-October 1985); 4. M. galloprovincialis absence (91-92); 5. Bryozoans bioconstruction dominance (2001). The dynamic succession of the observed benthic assemblages exhibited a good relation with the Tevere River flow. The Tevere River flow, and the subsequent sedimentation process, seems to have strongly influenced the benthic assemblage succession of the Fregene artificial reef
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