37 research outputs found

    Network resource allocation policies with energy transfer capabilities

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    During the last decades, mobile network operators have witnessed an exponential increase in the traffic demand, mainly due to the high request of services from a huge amount of users. The trend is of a further increase in both the traffic demand and the number of connected devices over the next years. The traffic load is expected to have an annual growth rate of 53% for the mobile network alone, and the upcoming industrial era, which will connect different types of devices to the mobile infrastructure including human and machine type communications, will definitely exacerbate such an increasing trend. The current directions anticipate that future mobile networks will be composed of ultra dense deployments of heterogeneous Base Stations (BSs), where BSs using different transmission powers coexist. Accordingly, the traditional Macro BSs layer will be complemented or replaced with multiple overlapping tiers of small BSs (SBSs), which will allow extending the system capacity. However, the massive use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the dense deployment of network elements is going to increase the level of energy consumed by the telecommunication infrastructure and its carbon footprint on the environment. Current estimations indicates that 10% of the worldwide electricity generation is due to the ICT industry and this value is forecasted to reach 51% by 2030, which imply that 23% of the carbon footprint by human activity will be due to ICT. Environmental sustainability is thus a key requirement for designing next generation mobile networks. Recently, the use of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) for supplying network elements has attracted the attention of the research community, where the interest is driven by the increased efficiency and the reduced costs of energy harvesters and storage devices, specially when installed to supply SBSs. Such a solution has been demonstrated to be environmentally and economically sustainable in both rural and urban areas. However, RESs will entail a higher management complexity. In fact, environmental energy is inherently erratic and intermittent, which may cause a fluctuating energy inflow and produce service outage. A proper control of how the energy is drained and balanced across network elements is therefore necessary for a self-sustainable network design. In this dissertation, we focus on energy harvested through solar panels that is deemed the most appropriate due to the good efficiency of commercial photovoltaic panels as well as the wide availability of the solar source for typical installations. The characteristics of this energy source are analyzed in the first technical part of the dissertation, by considering an approach based on the extraction of features from collected data of solar energy radiation. In the second technical part of the thesis we introduce our proposed scenario. A federation of BSs together with the distributed harvesters and storage devices at the SBS sites form a micro-grid, whose operations are managed by an energy management system in charge of controlling the intermittent and erratic energy budget from the RESs. We consider load control (i.e., enabling sleep mode in the SBSs) as a method to properly manage energy inflow and spending, based on the traffic demand. Moreover, in the third technical part, we introduce the possibility of improving the network energy efficiency by sharing the exceeding energy that may be available at some BS sites within the micro-grid. Finally, a centralized controller based on supervised and reinforcement learning is proposed in the last technical part of the dissertation. The controller is in charge of opportunistically operating the network to achieve efficient utilization of the harvested energy and prevent SBSs blackout.Durante las √ļltimas d√©cadas, los operadores de redes m√≥viles han sido testigos de un aumento exponencial en la demanda de tr√°fico, principalmente debido a la gran solicitud de servicios de una gran cantidad de usuarios. La tendencia es un aumento adicional tanto en la demanda de tr√°fico como en la cantidad de dispositivos conectados en los pr√≥ximos a√Īos. Se espera que la carga de tr√°fico tenga una tasa de crecimiento anual del 53% solo para la red m√≥vil, y la pr√≥xima era industrial, que conectar√° diferentes tipos de dispositivos a la infraestructura m√≥vil, definitivamente exacerbar√° tal aumento. Las instrucciones actuales anticipan que las redes m√≥viles futuras estar√°n compuestas por despliegues ultra densos de estaciones base (BS) heterog√©neas. En consecuencia, la capa tradicional de Macro BS se complementar√° o reemplazar√° con m√ļltiples niveles superpuestos de peque√Īos BS (SBS), lo que permitir√° ampliar la capacidad del sistema. Sin embargo, el uso masivo de la Tecnolog√≠a de la Informaci√≥n y la Comunicaci√≥n (TIC) y el despliegue denso de los elementos de la red aumentar√° el nivel de energ√≠a consumida por la infraestructura de telecomunicaciones y su huella de carbono en el medio ambiente. Las estimaciones actuales indican que el 10% de la generaci√≥n mundial de electricidad se debe a la industria de las TIC y se prev√© que este valor alcance el 51% para 2030, lo que implica que el 23% de la huella de carbono por actividad humana se deber√° a las TIC. La sostenibilidad ambiental es, por lo tanto, un requisito clave para dise√Īar redes m√≥viles de pr√≥xima generaci√≥n. Recientemente, el uso de fuentes de energ√≠a renovables (RES) para suministrar elementos de red ha atra√≠do la atenci√≥n de la comunidad investigadora, donde el inter√©s se ve impulsado por el aumento de la eficiencia y la reducci√≥n de los costos de los recolectores y dispositivos de almacenamiento de energ√≠a, especialmente cuando se instalan para suministrar SBS. Se ha demostrado que dicha soluci√≥n es ambiental y econ√≥micamente sostenible tanto en √°reas rurales como urbanas. Sin embargo, las RES conllevar√°n una mayor complejidad de gesti√≥n. De hecho, la energ√≠a ambiental es inherentemente err√°tica e intermitente, lo que puede causar una entrada de energ√≠a fluctuante y producir una interrupci√≥n del servicio. Por lo tanto, es necesario un control adecuado de c√≥mo se drena y equilibra la energ√≠a entre los elementos de la red para un dise√Īo de red autosostenible. En esta disertaci√≥n, nos enfocamos en la energ√≠a cosechada a trav√©s de paneles solares que se considera la m√°s apropiada debido a la buena eficiencia de los paneles fotovoltaicos comerciales, as√≠ como a la amplia disponibilidad de la fuente solar para instalaciones t√≠picas. Las caracter√≠sticas de esta fuente de energ√≠a se analizan en la primera parte t√©cnica de la disertaci√≥n, al considerar un enfoque basado en la extracci√≥n de caracter√≠sticas de los datos recopilados de radiaci√≥n de energ√≠a solar. En la segunda parte t√©cnica de la tesis presentamos nuestro escenario propuesto. Una federaci√≥n de BS junto con los cosechadores distribuidos y los dispositivos de almacenamiento forman una microrred, cuyas operaciones son administradas por un sistema de administraci√≥n de energ√≠a a cargo de controlar el presupuesto de energ√≠a intermitente y err√°tico de las RES. Consideramos el control de carga como un m√©todo para administrar adecuadamente la entrada y el gasto de energ√≠a, en funci√≥n de la demanda de tr√°fico. Adem√°s, en la tercera parte t√©cnica, presentamos la posibilidad de mejorar la eficiencia energ√©tica de la red al compartir la energ√≠a excedente que puede estar disponible en algunos sitios dentro de la microrred. Finalmente, se propone un controlador centralizado basado en aprendizaje supervisado y de refuerzo en la √ļltima parte t√©cnica de la disertaci√≥n. El controlador est√° a cargo de operar la red para lograr una utilizaci√≥n eficiente de energ√≠a y previene el apag√≥n de SB

    Data analytics for smart parking applications

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    We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1) outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2) clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps). These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset

    Energy sustainable paradigms and methods for future mobile networks: A survey

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    In this survey, we discuss the role of energy in the design of future mobile networks and, in particular, we advocate and elaborate on the use of energy harvesting (EH) hardware as a means to decrease the environmental footprint of 5G technology. To take full advantage of the harvested (renewable) energy, while still meeting the quality of service required by dense 5G deployments, suitable management techniques are here reviewed, highlighting the open issues that are still to be solved to provide eco-friendly and cost-effective mobile architectures. Several solutions have recently been proposed to tackle capacity, coverage and efficiency problems, including: C-RAN, Software Defined Networking (SDN) and fog computing, among others. However, these are not explicitly tailored to increase the energy efficiency of networks featuring renewable energy sources, and have the following limitations: (i) their energy savings are in many cases still insufficient and (ii) they do not consider network elements possessing energy harvesting capabilities. In this paper, we systematically review existing energy sustainable paradigms and methods to address points (i) and (ii), discussing how these can be exploited to obtain highly efficient, energy self-sufficient and high capacity networks. Several open issues have emerged from our review, ranging from the need for accurate energy, transmission and consumption models, to the lack of accurate data traffic profiles, to the use of power transfer, energy cooperation and energy trading techniques. These challenges are here discussed along with some research directions to follow for achieving sustainable 5G systems.Comment: Accepted by Elsevier Computer Communications, 21 pages, 9 figure

    UMA ABORDAGEM ETNOMATEM√ĀTICA DO PERFIL DO PROFESSOR DE MATEM√ĀTICA, DAS ESCOLAS IND√ćGENAS, DA REGI√ÉO NOROESTE DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Sabe-se que a vis√£o sobre a matem√°tica ensinada nas aldeias ind√≠genas √© diferente das ensinadas nas escolas regulares. Neste sentido, o trabalho da etnomatem√°tica ao dialogar com os povos ind√≠genas, √© o de fazer com que valorizem cada vez mais sua cultura, reconhecendo suas constru√ß√Ķes e suas produ√ß√Ķes e evitando conflitos culturais que resultam da introdu√ß√£o da ‚Äėmatem√°tica do branco‚Äô na educa√ß√£o ind√≠gena. Desta forma, o presente artigo busca caracterizar o processo de ensino-aprendizagem de matem√°tica, na educa√ß√£o escolar ind√≠gena,das diferentes reservas da regi√£o noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sob o olhar da etnomatem√°tica, destacando, o perfil do professor. Foram realizadas entrevistas com seis professores de matem√°tica das escolas ind√≠genas de Ira√≠, Liberato Salzano e Planalto. Muitas s√£o as dificuldades apresentadas no ensino de matem√°tica nas escolas ind√≠genas e, quando questionados, os professores relataram diversas. Al√©m dos conte√ļdos, foram destacadas outras dificuldades como influ√™ncia da m√≠dia, falta de concentra√ß√£o dos alunos e antipatia com a disciplina. Destaca-se a grande import√Ęncia desta pesquisa para a comunidade em geral, onde passa-se a ter conhecimento a respeito da vida profissional dos professores das escolas ind√≠genas, no que diz respeito a matem√°tica, bem como em rela√ß√£o ao perfil deste profissional

    TeleQnA: A Benchmark Dataset to Assess Large Language Models Telecommunications Knowledge

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    We introduce TeleQnA, the first benchmark dataset designed to evaluate the knowledge of Large Language Models (LLMs) in telecommunications. Comprising 10,000 questions and answers, this dataset draws from diverse sources, including standards and research articles. This paper outlines the automated question generation framework responsible for creating this dataset, along with how human input was integrated at various stages to ensure the quality of the questions. Afterwards, using the provided dataset, an evaluation is conducted to assess the capabilities of LLMs, including GPT-3.5 and GPT-4. The results highlight that these models struggle with complex standards related questions but exhibit proficiency in addressing general telecom-related inquiries. Additionally, our results showcase how incorporating telecom knowledge context significantly enhances their performance, thus shedding light on the need for a specialized telecom foundation model. Finally, the dataset is shared with active telecom professionals, whose performance is subsequently benchmarked against that of the LLMs. The findings illustrate that LLMs can rival the performance of active professionals in telecom knowledge, thanks to their capacity to process vast amounts of information, underscoring the potential of LLMs within this domain. The dataset has been made publicly accessible on GitHub

    Effect of Binding Modules Fused to Cutinase on the Enzymatic Synthesis of Polyesters

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    open9In relation to the development of environmentally-friendly processing technologies for the continuously growing market of plastics, enzymes play an important role as green and sustainable biocatalysts. The present study reports the use of heterogeneous immobilized biocatalysts in solvent-free systems for the synthesis of aliphatic oligoesters with Mws and monomer conversions up to 1500 Da and 74%, respectively. To improve the accessibility of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates to the surface of the biocatalyst and improve the reaction kinetic and the chain elongation, two different binding modules were fused on the surface of cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica. The fusion enzymes were successfully immobilized (>99% of bound protein) via covalent bonding onto epoxy-activated beads. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example where fused enzymes are used to catalyze transesterification reactions for polymer synthesis purposes.openFerrario, Valerio; Todea, Anamaria; Wolansky, Lisa; Piovesan, Nicola; Guarneri, Alice; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M.; Gardossi, Lucia; Pellis, AlessandroFerrario, Valerio; Todea, Anamaria; Wolansky, Lisa; Piovesan, Nicola; Guarneri, Alice; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M.; Gardossi, Lucia; Pellis, Alessandr

    The Longevity of Fruit Trees in Basilicata (Southern Italy): Implications for Agricultural Biodiversity Conservation

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    In the Mediterranean basin, agriculture and other forms of human land use have shaped the environment since ancient times. Intensive and extensive agricultural systems managed with a few cultured plant populations of improved varieties are a widespread reality in many Mediterranean countries. Despite this, historical cultural landscapes still exist in interior and less intensively managed rural areas. There, ancient fruit tree varieties have survived modern cultivation systems, preserving a unique genetic heritage. In this study, we mapped and characterized 106 living fruit trees of ancient varieties in the Basilicata region of southern Italy. Tree ages were determined through tree ring measurements and radiocarbon analyses. We uncovered some of the oldest scientifically dated fruit trees in the world. The oldest fruit species were olive (max age 680 +/- 57 years), mulberry (647 +/- 66 years), chestnut (636 +/- 66 years), and pear (467 +/- 89 years). These patriarchs hold a unique genetic resource; their preservation and genetic maintenance through agamic propagation are now promoted by the Lucan Agency for the Development and Innovation in Agriculture (ALSIA). Each tree also represents a hub for biodiversity conservation in agrarian ecosystems: their large architecture and time persistence guarantee ecological niches and micro-habitats suitable for flora and fauna species of conservation significance

    Investigating sacred natural sites and protected areas for forest area changes in Italy

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    Forests will be critical to mitigate the effects of climate and global changes. Therefore, knowledge on the drivers of forest area changes are important. Although the drivers of deforestation are well known, drivers of afforestation are almost unexplored. Moreover, protected areas (PAs) effectively decrease deforestation, but other types of area-based conservation measures exist. Among these, sacred natural sites (SNS) deliver positive conservation out- comes while making up an extensive ‚Äúshadow network‚ÄĚ of conservation. How- ever, little is known on the capacity of SNS to regulate land-use changes. Here, we explored the role of SNS and PAs as drivers of forest loss and forest gain in Italy between 1936 and 2018. We performed a descriptive analysis and modeled forest gain and forest loss by means of spatial binomial generalized linear models with residual autocovariates. The main drivers of forest area changes were geographical position and elevation, nonetheless SNS and PAs significantly decreased forest loss and increased forest gain. Although the neg- ative relationship between SNS and forest loss is a desirable outcome, the posi- tive relationship with forest gain is concerning because it could point to abandonment of cultural landscapes with consequent loss of open habitats. We suggest a legal recognition of SNS and an active ecological monitoring and planning to help maintain their positive role in biodiversity conservation. As a novel conservation planning approach, SNS can be used as stepping stones between PAs increasing connectivity and also to conserve small habitat patches threatened by human activities
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