16 research outputs found

    Rescaling climate justice: sub-national issues and innovations for low carbon futures

    Get PDF
    Climate justice is emerging as a discourse for mobilising activism around the globe. The language of justice is less explicit as a policy principle despite long standing attention to negotiating responsibilities for causing climate changes and bearing costs related to reducing climate change emissions. Nevertheless there are significant justice issues in terms of how mitigation and adaptation will have differential impacts for people in different places. Even where responsibility and equity negotiations have taken place they have tended to occur at the nation state scale through global institutions and events. However, justice implications of climate change are much more socially and geographically variegated than this would suggest. This paper will examine the arena of beyond-national climate justice issues and actions specifically highlighting the range of beyond-national innovations that seek just transitions to low carbon futures. It will examine the regulatory conditions for supporting such initiatives and relate these findings to the current Irish rhetorical commitment to a green economy.Climate, justice, Ireland, NGOs

    Two Tribes Go to War: an Examination of Social Interactions at Irish Football Games

    Get PDF
    research is to explore social life and interaction in sporting space. Despite the growing interest in the field of sport consumption, the experiences of supporters have not been adequately theorised. Studies acknowledging the sport supporter tend to focus supporters as lone individuals or as rigid groups of homogenous individuals that fit into a typology. In this study, I examine the distinct ways in which supporters in small groups interact in the sporting space through mutual relationships and interdependent social networks. Maffesoli (1996) is the original proponent in the study of tribal consumption groups. Maffesoli’s (1996) work has not been used as a theoretical framework for studying sport before. However, from a critical review of Maffesoli’s (1996) theory and an examination of consumer research literature it is evident that his theory contains several threads which provide a contribution to our understanding of how people interact socially in sporting space. The research utilises an ethnographic methodology, comprising of both fieldwork and interviews. The research detected numerous sub-tribes within a football crowd united by certain styles of support. However, the study also found that social structures, such as family and friendship groups, play a role in facilitating interactions at football games. Groups based on strong ties, such as familial relations and main friendship groups, were termed supporter clans. Irish football provides an arena for the maintenance of deep social ties with friends and family while also providing the potential for temporary and spontaneous interactions with others who share a common passion for the consumption object. The various groups within the general tribe were found to negotiate their identity through aligning themselves with similar people and distancing themselves from groups that were perceived to be different. The research also revealed that the level of interaction between different groups, both sub-tribes and supporter clans, is related to proximity, regular contact and perceptions of similarity. This study adds to the body of sport marketing literature through revealing the diversity of consumer communities within football. It also provides insight regarding the discrete practices that supporters draw on to interact. In addition, the study has added to tribal theory through demonstrating Maffesoli’s theoretical underpinnings in an empirical setting

    Audit committees: practices, practitioners and praxis of governance

    Get PDF
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and critique prior research on audit committees using a practice-theory lens. Research on audit committees has followed the same trajectory as early research on boards of directors, which has been criticised for its singular theoretical perspectives and methodologies that do not capture the complexity of real-world experiences/behaviours. Design/methodology/approach: The authors devise an analytical framework based on practice theory to conduct the review. The authors examine what audit committees should do (i.e. best practice) vs what audit committees actually do (i.e. actual activities in practice – praxis). Attributes of audit committee members, and the relationship dynamics relevant to their role execution (i.e. practitioners), are considered. Findings: Research on boards has found that over-emphasis on agency theory’s monitoring role negatively impacts boards' effectiveness. The authors invoke other theories in examining what audit committees do in practice. The authors characterise the role of audit committees as oversight not monitoring. The authors question whether, similar to auditing, audit committees are blamist tools or are genuinely orientated towards supporting improvements in organisational management systems. The authors unpack the ritualistic ceremonial behaviours and symbolic endeavours vs substantive engagement by audit committees. The analytical framework also considers the 'guardianship circle' around audit committees in the form of the key practitioners and their relationships: audit committee members, auditors and managers. Originality/value: Drawing on the analytical framework, the authors provide directions for further opportunities for research of audit committees

    Implementing Corporate Governance: Practices, Practitioners, Praxis

    No full text
    In 2016, the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) revised the UK Corporate Governance Code. It also recently announced a new project to further review that version of the Code. The 2016 revisions of the Code of Practice for the Governance of State Bodies added more than 30 pages and three supplementary guidelines to the 2009 version. Thus, the standard of best practice is ever-increasing. But what about the practice of corporate governance

    Should Non-Executive Directors Know as Much as Managers?

    No full text
    Information asymmetry – the difference between company-specific information available to management and what is presented to boards – is often considered an impediment to board effectiveness. In some cases, governance failures arise because information is deliberately withheld from boards. Most boards work well, however, notwithstanding the information gap between managers and non-executive directors

    Information Asymmetry is Good for Effective Boards

    No full text
    Commentators often complain that non-executives need more information. But recent research suggests that it is information asymmetry that actually makes non-executives effective

    Accountability Processes in Boardrooms: A Conceptual Model of Manager-Non-Executive Director Information Asymmetry

    Get PDF
    Purpose: Understanding the influence of information and knowledge exchange and sharing between managers and non-executive directors is important in assessing the dynamic processes of accountability in boardrooms. By analysing information/knowledge at multiple levels, invoking the literature on implicit/tacit and explicit information/knowledge, we show that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for effective boards. We introduce a conceptual model of manager-non-executive director information asymmetry as an outcome of our interpretation of information/knowledge sharing processes amongst board members. Our model provides a more nuanced agenda of the management-board information asymmetry problem to enable a better understanding of the role of different types of information in practice. Design/methodology/approach – Our analysis of information/knowledge exchange, sharing and creation and the resultant conceptual model are based on the following elements: (i) manager-non-executive director information/knowledge, (ii) management-board information/knowledge and (iii) board dynamics and reciprocal processes converting implicit/tacit into explicit information/knowledge. Findings – Our paper provides new insights into the dynamics of information/knowledge exchange, sharing and creation between managers and non-executive directors (individual level)/between management and boards (group level). We characterise this as a two-way process, back-and-forth between managers/executive directors and non-executive directors. The importance of relative/experienced "ignorance" of non-executive directors is revealed, which we term the "information asymmetry paradox". Research implications – We set out key opportunities for developing a research agenda from our model based on prior research of knowledge conversion processes and how these may be applied in a boardroom setting. Practical implications – Our model may assist directors in better understanding their roles and the division of labour between managers and non-executive directors from an information/knowledge perspective. Originality/value – We apply Ikujiro Nonaka’s knowledge conversion framework to consider the transitioning from individual implicit personal to explicit shared information/knowledge, to understand the subtle processes at play in boardrooms influencing information/knowledge exchange, sharing and creation between managers and non-executive directors

    Untargeted metabolomic analysis and pathway discovery in perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    No full text
    Elucidating metabolic effects of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) may reveal early biomarkers of injury and new treatment targets. This study uses untargeted metabolomics to examine early metabolic alterations in a carefully defined neonatal population. Infants with perinatal asphyxia who were resuscitated at birth and recovered (PA group), those who developed HIE (HIE group) and healthy controls were all recruited at birth. Metabolomic analysis of cord blood was performed using direct infusion FT-ICR mass spectrometry. For each reproducibly detected metabolic feature, mean fold differences were calculated HIE vs. controls (ΔHIE) and PA vs. controls (ΔPA). Putative metabolite annotations were assigned and pathway analysis was performed. Twenty-nine putatively annotated metabolic features were significantly different in ΔPA after false discovery correction (q \u3c 0.05), with eight of these also significantly altered in ΔHIE. Altered putative metabolites included; melatonin, leucine, kynurenine and 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid which differentiated between infant groups (ΔPA and ΔHIE); and D-erythrose-phosphate, acetone, 3-oxotetradecanoic acid and methylglutarylcarnitine which differentiated across severity grades of HIE. Pathway analysis revealed ΔHIE was associated with a 50% and 75% perturbation of tryptophan and pyrimidine metabolism, respectively. We have identified perturbed metabolic pathways and potential biomarkers specific to PA and HIE, which measured at birth, may help direct treatment
    corecore