57 research outputs found

    ENGLISH TEACHERS’ QUESTIONS IN A VIETNAMESE HIGH SCHOOL READING CLASSROOM

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    Recently, developing students’ thinking, especially critical thinking (CT), has become a hot issue. Critical thinking has been claimed to have an important impact on learners’ reading comprehension because it can help them analyze, evaluate, construct their thinking, solving problems and reasoning (Ennis, 1989). However, the extent that teachers’ classroom activities contribute to developing students’ critical thinking has rarely been researched. The current case study was conducted with six EFL high school teachers and 10 reading lessons in Vietnam to explore the teachers’ use of questions and to analyze if these questions could facilitate the students’ critical thinking. Classroom observations and the cognitive domain of Bloom’s taxonomy were adapted as the research instruments. The study results reveal common types of questions are often used by high school teachers in their reading lessons. Suggestions are made on types of questions that teachers should function more in their class in order to enhance students’ critical thinking

    Synthesis of Gold Nanobipyramids by Seed-mediated Method and Santibacterial Activities

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    Metallic nanoparticles as antibacterial agents have been studied for several years. The most used antibacterial nanoparticles are silver nanoparticles. The mechanisms and  antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles are well known, but the effects of gold nanoparticles, especially gold Nano bipyramids, are not considered. In this research, we synthesized gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) by seed mediated method using surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). After preparing, gold nanobipyramids is removed CTAB and modified the surface using polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan as the stabilizers. Besides, antibacterial effects of gold nanobipyramids on both Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) are investigated in this paper. The results show that gold nanobipyramids have good antibacterial activities even at low concentration. The optimal concentration of stabilizers and gold nanobipyramids in antibacterial activities are also studied in this paper

    THÀNH PHẦN HÓA HỌC VÀ HOẠT TÍNH CHỐNG OXY HÓA CỦA CÁC DỊCH CHIẾT TỪ HOA XUYẾN CHI (Bidens pilosa)

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    Bidens pilosa is used in traditional medicine in Vietnam. The antioxidant potential of the ethanol extract and fractions from the flowers of Bidens pilosa was evaluated through DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and the total antioxidant capacity method. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibits the highest activity with the lowest IC50 value (IC50 = 31.54 μg·mL–1 and IC50 = 35.33 μg·mL–1 for DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity), and the total antioxidant capacity was 85.05 ± 0.28 mg GA·g–1. The composition of Bidens pilosa flowers: the total phenolic, total flavonoid, polysaccharides, and triterpenoid, was examined by using the colorimetric method, and their quantities are equivalent to 59.35 ± 0.83 mg GAE·g–1, 42.35 ± 1.50 mg QE·g–1, 4.44 ± 0.02%, and 32.88 ± 0.66 mg acid oleanolic·g–1, respectively. Specifically, the polysaccharide and total triterpenoid content of Bidens pilosa flowers was reported for the first time.Xuyến chi đã được sử dụng trong các bài thuốc cổ truyền Việt Nam. Khả năng chống oxy hóa của cao toàn phần và các cao phân đoạn từ hoa cây Xuyến chi được đánh giá thông qua ba mô hình: tổng khả năng chống oxy hoá, khả năng bắt gốc tự do DPPH và khả năng bắt gốc ABTS. Kết quả cho thấy cao ethyl acetate có khả năng chống oxy hóa tốt nhất với IC50 nhỏ nhất (IC50 = 31,54 μg·mL–1 và           IC50 = 35,33 μg·mL–1 tương ứng với khả năng bắt gốc DPPH và ABTS) và hàm lượng các chất chống oxy hóa cao nhất (85,05 ± 0,28 mg·g–1 acid gallic). Hàm lượng các hợp chất có hoạt tính sinh học (tổng các hợp chất phenol, tổng flavonoid, tổng triterpenoid và polysaccharide) trong dịch chiết hoa cây Xuyến chi được xác định bằng phương pháp trắc quang. Hàm lượng tổng các hợp chất phenol và flavonoid là 59,35 ± 0,83 mg GAE·g–1 và 42,35 ± 1,50 mg QE·g–1; hàm lượng polysacharide và triterpenoid là 4,44 ± 0,02% và 32,88 ± 0,66 mg acid oleanolic·g–1. Lần đầu tiên, tổng hàm lượng triterpenoid và polysacharide trong hoa Xuyến chi được công bố

    Genome-wide association study of a panel of vietnamese rice landraces reveals new QTLs for tolerance to water deficit during the vegetative phase

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    Background: Drought tolerance is a major challenge in breeding rice for unfavorable environments. In this study, we used a panel of 180 Vietnamese rice landraces genotyped with 21,623 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for different drought response and recovery traits during the vegetative stage. These landraces originate from different geographical locations and are adapted to different agrosystems characterized by contrasted water regimes. Vietnamese landraces are often underrepresented in international panels used for GWAS, but they can contain original genetic determinants related to drought resistance. Results: The panel of 180 rice varieties was phenotyped under greenhouse conditions for several drought-related traits in an experimental design with 3 replicates. Plants were grown in pots for 4 weeks and drought-stressed by stopping irrigation for an additional 4 weeks. Drought sensitivity scores and leaf relative water content were measured throughout the drought stress. The recovery capacity was measured 2 weeks after plant rewatering. Several QTLs associated with these drought tolerance traits were identified by GWAS using a mixed model with control of structure and kinship. The number of detected QTLs consisted of 14 for leaf relative water content, 9 for slope of relative water content, 12 for drought sensitivity score, 3 for recovery ability and 1 for relative crop growth rate. This set of 39 QTLs actually corresponded to a total of 17 different QTLs because 9 were simultaneously associated with two or more traits, which indicates that these common loci may have pleiotropic effects on drought-related traits. No QTL was found in association with the same traits in both the indica and japonica subpanels. The possible candidate genes underlying the quantitative trait loci are reviewed. Conclusions: Some of the identified QTLs contain promising candidate genes with a function related to drought tolerance by osmotic stress adjustment

    Smoke-free environment policy in Vietnam: What did people see and how did they react when they visited various public places?

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    Introduction: Since Vietnam has signed WHO framework on tobacco control (FCTC) in 2003 and has issued tobacco control law in 2013, there has been little research concerning about what impacts smoke-free regulations have had on public compliance. The objective of this study was to assess public exposure to secondhand smoke and reaction toward smoke-free policy regulations in Vietnam and the associated factor. Methods: Using the design of GATS (Global Adult Tobacco Survey), a nationally representative sample of 8,996 adults were approached for data collection. Logistic regression was used to examine the associated factor.Results: The study revealed that the prevalence of respondents exposed to secondhand smoke was much higher in bars/café/tea shops (90.07%) and restaurants (81.81%) than in any other public places, universities (36.70%), government buildings (31.12%), public transport (20.04%), healthcare facilities (17.85%) and schools (15.84%). 13.23% of respondents saw smokers violate smoke-free regulations. Among those who saw them violate smoke-free regulations, just one-third cautioned them to stop smoking. Strikingly, a higher rate of cautioning smokers to stop smoking was observed among the older, married, and better educated respondents. Respondents who were married, better educated and in lower economic status were more likely to remind smokers to stop smoking.Conclusions: The study has called for strengthening two of the six MPOWER (Monitor, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforce and Raise) components of the tobacco free initiative introduced by WHO, Monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies and Protecting people from tobacco smoke

    Impact of HIV infection and anti-retroviral therapy on the immune profile of and microbial translocation in HIV-infected children in Vietnam

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    CD4+ T-lymphocyte destruction, microbial translocation, and systemic immune activation are the main mechanisms of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection. To investigate the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the immune profile of and microbial translocation in HIV-infected children, 60 HIV vertically infected children (31 without ART: HIV(+) and 29 with ART: ART(+)) and 20 HIV-uninfected children (HIV(–)) aged 2–12 years were recruited in Vietnam, and their blood samples were immunologically and bacteriologically analyzed. Among the HIV(+) children, the total CD4+-cell and their subset (type 1 helper T-cell (Th1)/Th2/Th17) counts were inversely correlated with age (all p < 0.05), whereas regulatory T-cell (Treg) counts and CD4/CD8 ratios had become lower, and the CD38+HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-DR+CD8+- (activated CD8+) cell percentage and plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14, a monocyte activation marker) levels had become higher than those of HIV(–) children by the age of 2 years; the CD4/CD8 ratio was inversely correlated with the plasma HIV RNA load and CD8+-cell activation status. Among the ART(+) children, the total CD4+-cell and Th2/Th17/Treg-subset counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio gradually increased, with estimated ART periods of normalization being 4.8–8.3 years, whereas Th1 counts and the CD8+-cell activation status normalized within 1 year of ART initiation. sCD14 levels remained high even after ART initiation. The detection frequency of bacterial 16S/23S ribosomal DNA/RNA in blood did not differ between HIV-infected and -uninfected children. Thus, in children, HIV infection caused a rapid decrease in Treg counts and the early activation of CD8+ cells and monocytes, and ART induced rapid Th1 recovery and early CD8+-cell activation normalization but had little effect on monocyte activation. The CD4/CD8 ratio could therefore be an additional marker for ART monitoring. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

    Awareness and preparedness of healthcare workers against the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional survey across 57 countries.

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    BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, there have been concerns related to the preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWs). This study aimed to describe the level of awareness and preparedness of hospital HCWs at the time of the first wave. METHODS: This multinational, multicenter, cross-sectional survey was conducted among hospital HCWs from February to May 2020. We used a hierarchical logistic regression multivariate analysis to adjust the influence of variables based on awareness and preparedness. We then used association rule mining to identify relationships between HCW confidence in handling suspected COVID-19 patients and prior COVID-19 case-management training. RESULTS: We surveyed 24,653 HCWs from 371 hospitals across 57 countries and received 17,302 responses from 70.2% HCWs overall. The median COVID-19 preparedness score was 11.0 (interquartile range [IQR] = 6.0-14.0) and the median awareness score was 29.6 (IQR = 26.6-32.6). HCWs at COVID-19 designated facilities with previous outbreak experience, or HCWs who were trained for dealing with the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, had significantly higher levels of preparedness and awareness (p<0.001). Association rule mining suggests that nurses and doctors who had a 'great-extent-of-confidence' in handling suspected COVID-19 patients had participated in COVID-19 training courses. Male participants (mean difference = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.46; p<0.001) and nurses (mean difference = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.81; p<0.001) had higher preparedness scores compared to women participants and doctors. INTERPRETATION: There was an unsurprising high level of awareness and preparedness among HCWs who participated in COVID-19 training courses. However, disparity existed along the lines of gender and type of HCW. It is unknown whether the difference in COVID-19 preparedness that we detected early in the pandemic may have translated into disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 burden of disease by gender or HCW type
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