28,316 research outputs found

### On a Classical, Geometric Origin of Magnetic Moments, Spin-Angular Momentum and the Dirac Gyromagnetic Ratio

By treating the real Maxwell Field and real linearized Einstein equations as
being imbedded in complex Minkowski space, one can interpret magnetic moments
and spin-angular momentum as arising from a charge and mass monopole source
moving along a complex world line in the complex Minkowski space. In the
circumstances where the complex center of mass world-line coincides with the
complex center of charge world-line, the gyromagnetic ratio is that of the
Dirac electron.Comment: 17 page

### The Real Meaning of Complex Minkowski-Space World-Lines

In connection with the study of shear-free null geodesics in Minkowski space,
we investigate the real geometric effects in real Minkowski space that are
induced by and associated with complex world-lines in complex Minkowski space.
It was already known, in a formal manner, that complex analytic curves in
complex Minkowski space induce shear-free null geodesic congruences. Here we
look at the direct geometric connections of the complex line and the real
structures. Among other items, we show, in particular, how a complex world-line
projects into the real Minkowski space in the form of a real shear-free null
geodesic congruence.Comment: 16 page

### Twisting Null Geodesic Congruences, Scri, H-Space and Spin-Angular Momentum

The purpose of this work is to return, with a new observation and rather
unconventional point of view, to the study of asymptotically flat solutions of
Einstein equations. The essential observation is that from a given
asymptotically flat space-time with a given Bondi shear, one can find (by
integrating a partial differential equation) a class of asymptotically
shear-free (but, in general, twistiing) null geodesic congruences. The class is
uniquely given up to the arbitrary choice of a complex analytic world-line in a
four-parameter complex space. Surprisingly this parameter space turns out to be
the H-space that is associated with the real physical space-time under
consideration. The main development in this work is the demonstration of how
this complex world-line can be made both unique and also given a physical
meaning. More specifically by forcing or requiring a certain term in the
asymptotic Weyl tensor to vanish, the world-line is uniquely determined and
becomes (by several arguments) identified as the `complex center-of-mass'.
Roughly, its imaginary part becomes identified with the intrinsic spin-angular
momentum while the real part yields the orbital angular momentum.Comment: 26 pages, authors were relisted alphabeticall

### Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Fields, Shear-Free Congruences and Complex Center of Charge World Lines

We show that for asymptotically vanishing Maxwell fields in Minkowski space
with non-vanishing total charge, one can find a unique geometric structure, a
null direction field, at null infinity. From this structure a unique complex
analytic world-line in complex Minkowski space that can be found and then
identified as the complex center of charge. By ''sitting'' - in an imaginary
sense, on this world-line both the (intrinsic) electric and magnetic dipole
moments vanish. The (intrinsic) magnetic dipole moment is (in some sense)
obtained from the `distance' the complex the world line is from the real space
(times the charge). This point of view unifies the asymptotic treatment of the
dipole moments For electromagnetic fields with vanishing magnetic dipole
moments the world line is real and defines the real (ordinary center of
charge). We illustrate these ideas with the Lienard-Wiechert Maxwell field. In
the conclusion we discuss its generalization to general relativity where the
complex center of charge world-line has its analogue in a complex center of
mass allowing a definition of the spin and orbital angular momentum - the
analogues of the magnetic and electric dipole moments.Comment: 17 page

### The Universal Cut Function and Type II Metrics

In analogy with classical electromagnetic theory, where one determines the
total charge and both electric and magnetic multipole moments of a source from
certain surface integrals of the asymptotic (or far) fields, it has been known
for many years - from the work of Hermann Bondi - that energy and momentum of
gravitational sources could be determined by similar integrals of the
asymptotic Weyl tensor. Recently we observed that there were certain overlooked
structures, {defined at future null infinity,} that allowed one to determine
(or define) further properties of both electromagnetic and gravitating sources.
These structures, families of {complex} `slices' or `cuts' of Penrose's null
infinity, are referred to as Universal Cut Functions, (UCF). In particular, one
can define from these structures a (complex) center of mass (and center of
charge) and its equations of motion - with rather surprising consequences. It
appears as if these asymptotic structures contain in their imaginary part, a
well defined total spin-angular momentum of the source. We apply these ideas to
the type II algebraically special metrics, both twisting and twist-free.Comment: 32 page

### The Large Footprints of H-Space on Asymptotically Flat Space-Times

We show that certain structures defined on the complex four dimensional space
known as H-Space have considerable relevance for its closely associated
asymptotically flat real physical space-time. More specifically for every
complex analytic curve on the H-space there is an asymptotically shear-free
null geodesic congruence in the physical space-time. There are specific
geometric structures that allow this world-line to be chosen in a unique
canonical fashion giving it physical meaning and significance.Comment: 7 page

### Proper conformal symmetries in SD Einstein spaces

Proper conformal symmetries in self-dual (SD) Einstein spaces are considered.
It is shown, that such symmetries are admitted only by the Einstein spaces of
the type [N]x[N]. Spaces of the type [N]x[-] are considered in details.
Existence of the proper conformal Killing vector implies existence of the
isometric, covariantly constant and null Killing vector. It is shown, that
there are two classes of [N]x[-]-metrics admitting proper conformal symmetry.
They can be distinguished by analysis of the associated anti-self-dual (ASD)
null strings. Both classes are analyzed in details. The problem is reduced to
single linear PDE. Some general and special solutions of this PDE are
presented

### The Generalized Good Cut Equation

The properties of null geodesic congruences (NGCs) in Lorentzian manifolds
are a topic of considerable importance. More specifically NGCs with the special
property of being shear-free or asymptotically shear-free (as either infinity
or a horizon is approached) have received a great deal of recent attention for
a variety of reasons. Such congruences are most easily studied via solutions to
what has been referred to as the 'good cut equation' or the 'generalization
good cut equation'. It is the purpose of this note to study these equations and
show their relationship to each other. In particular we show how they all have
a four complex dimensional manifold (known as H-space, or in a special case as
complex Minkowski space) as a solution space.Comment: 12 page

### The spatial structure of networks

We study networks that connect points in geographic space, such as
transportation networks and the Internet. We find that there are strong
signatures in these networks of topography and use patterns, giving the
networks shapes that are quite distinct from one another and from
non-geographic networks. We offer an explanation of these differences in terms
of the costs and benefits of transportation and communication, and give a
simple model based on the Monte Carlo optimization of these costs and benefits
that reproduces well the qualitative features of the networks studied.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

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