184 research outputs found

    A GIS toolkit to evaluate individual and joint accessibility to urban opportunities

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    Assessing equity of service delivery: a comparative analysis of measures of accessibility to public services

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    Minimum commuting distance as a spatial characteristic in a non-monocentric urban system : the case of Flanders

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    This paper focuses on regional variations in commuting trip lengths by calculating minimum (required) commuting distances, along with excess commuting rates. The study contributes to the excess commuting research framework from a regional perspective, both by stressing the specific characteristics of urban networks with overlapping commute areas, and by putting forward an alternative method for calculating spatially disaggregated values. A case study in the north of Belgium shows that large variations in minimum commuting distances occur. This in turn identifies to a large extent opportunities for shrinking commuting distances by influences such as rising fuel prices, compact urban planning, extreme congestion or dissuasive traffic policies

    Person monitoring with Bluetooth tracking

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    Modelling potential movement in constrained travel environments using rough space-time prisms

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    The widespread adoption of location-aware technologies (LATs) has afforded analysts new opportunities for efficiently collecting trajectory data of moving individuals. These technologies enable measuring trajectories as a finite sample set of time-stamped locations. The uncertainty related to both finite sampling and measurement errors makes it often difficult to reconstruct and represent a trajectory followed by an individual in space-time. Time geography offers an interesting framework to deal with the potential path of an individual in between two sample locations. Although this potential path may be easily delineated for travels along networks, this will be less straightforward for more nonnetwork-constrained environments. Current models, however, have mostly concentrated on network environments on the one hand and do not account for the spatiotemporal uncertainties of input data on the other hand. This article simultaneously addresses both issues by developing a novel methodology to capture potential movement between uncertain space-time points in obstacle-constrained travel environments

    Measuring segregation using patterns of daily travel behavior : a social interaction based model of exposure

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    Recent advances in transportation geography demonstrate the ability to compute a metropolitan scale metric of social interaction opportunities based on the time-geographic concept of joint accessibility. The method we put forward in this article decomposes the social interaction potential (SIP) metric into interactions within and between social groups, such as people of different race, income level, and occupation. This provides a novel metric of exposure, one of the fundamental spatial dimensions of segregation. In particular, the SIP metric is disaggregated into measures of inter-group and intra-group exposure. While activity spaces have been used to measure exposure in the geographic literature, these approaches do not adequately represent the dynamic nature of the target populations. We make the next step by representing both the source and target population groups by space-time prisms, thus more accurately representing spatial and temporal dynamics and constraints. Additionally, decomposition of the SIP metric means that each of the group-wise components of the SIP metric can be represented at zones of residence, workplace, and specific origin-destination pairs. Consequently, the spatial variation in segregation can be explored and hotspots of segregation and integration potential can be identified. The proposed approach is demonstrated for synthetic cities with different population distributions and daily commute flow characteristics, as well as for a case study of the Detroit-Warren-Livonia MSA
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