17 research outputs found

    Ergebnisorientierte Massnahmen zur F√∂rderung der Biodiversit√§t in der Berglandwirtschaft - Ein Handbuch f√ľr die Politik

    Get PDF
    Das Handbuch enth√§lt: - Eine Einf√ľhrung in ergebnisorientierte Massnahmen Projekt MERIT - Einen √úberblick √ľber die Vor- und Nachteile ergebnisorientierte Massnahmen - Wissenschaftlich fundierte Empfehlungen f√ľr die Gestaltung, Umsetzung und Governance ergebnisorientierter Biodiversit√§tsf√∂rdermassnahmen in der Berglandwirtschaft - Beispiel von ergebnisorientierten Massnahmen in Europ

    Result-oriented Measures for Biodiversity in Mountain Farming - A Policy Handbook

    Get PDF
    The handbook includes: - An introduction to result-oriented measures - An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of result-oriented measures - Specific recommendations for the design, implementation and governance of resultoriented measures for biodiversity in mountain farming - Examples of result-oriented measures that have been implemente

    Statistical Instability of TBSS Analysis Based on DTI Fitting Algorithm

    No full text
    Voxel-based DTI analysis is an important approach in the comparison of subject groups by detecting and localizing gray and white matter changes in the brain. One of the principal problems for intersubject comparison is the absence of a ‚Äúgold standard‚ÄĚ processing pipeline. As a result, contradictory results may be obtained from identical data using different data processing pipelines, for example, in the data normalization or smoothing procedures. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) shows potential to overcome this problem by automatic detection of white matter changes and decreasing variation in the performed analysis. However, skeleton projection approaches, such as TBSS, critically depend on the accuracy of the diffusion scalar metric estimations. In this work, we demonstrate that the agreement and reliability of TBSS results depend on the applied DTI data processing algorithm. Statistical tests have been performed using two in vivo measured datasets and compared with different implementations of the least squares algorithm. As a result, we recommend repeating TBSS analysis using different fitting algorithms, in particular, using on iteratively-assessed robust estimators, as accurate and more reliable approach in voxel-based analysis, particularly, for TBSS. Repeating TBSS analysis allows one to detect and localize suspicious regions in white matter which were estimated as the regions with significant difference. Finally, we did not find a favorite fitting algorithm (or class of them) which can be marked as more reliable for group comparison

    Diffusion kurtosis metrics as biomarkers of microstructural development: A comparative study of a group of children and a group of adults

    No full text
    The most common modality of diffusion MRI used in the ageing and development studies is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) providing two key measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Here, we investigated diffusional changes occurring between childhood (average age 10.3 years) and mitddle adult age (average age 54.3 years) with the help of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), a recent novel extension of DTI that provides additional metrics quantifying non-Gaussianity of water diffusion in brain tissue. We performed voxelwise statistical between-group comparison of diffusion tensor and kurtosis tensor metrics using two methods, namely, the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and the atlas-based regional data analysis. For the latter, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, mean diffusion kurtosis, and other scalar diffusion tensor and kurtosis tensor parameters were evaluated for white matter fibres provided by the Johns-Hopkins-University Atlas in the FSL toolkit (http://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/Atlases). Within the same age group, all evaluated parameters varied depending on the anatomical region. TBSS analysis showed that changes in kurtosis tensor parameters beyond adolescence are more widespread along the skeleton in comparison to the changes of the diffusion tensor metrics. The regional data analysis demonstrated considerably larger between-group changes of the diffusion kurtosis metrics than of diffusion tensor metrics in all investigated regions. The effect size of the parametric changes between childhood and middle adulthood was quantified using Cohen's d. We used Cohen's d related to mean diffusion kurtosis to examine heterogeneous maturation of various fibres. The largest changes of this parameter (interpreted as reflecting the lowest level of maturation by the age of children group) were observed in the association fibres, cingulum (gyrus) and cingulum (hippocampus) followed by superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The smallest changes were observed in the commissural fibres, forceps major and forceps minor. In conclusion, our data suggest that DKI is sensitive to developmental changes in local microstructure and environment, and is particularly powerful to unravel developmental differences in major association fibres, such as the cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus

    Result-oriented Measures for Biodiversity in Mountain Farming. A Policy Handbook

    No full text
    International audienceThis handbook is based on the results, reports, deliverables and user fora of a project entitled ‚ÄėMerit based income from sustainable land management in mountain farming‚Äô (MERIT). This research was carried out under the RURAGRI programme ; an ERA-NET supported by the European Commission and national governmental funding bodies under the 7th EU Framework research Programme (FP 7, CA 235175).This handbook is targeted at policy makers from governmental bodies, public authorities, farmers‚Äô associations as well as other private or public organizations involved and interested in the development and implementation of agri-environmental policies. It provides information about the implementation of result-oriented agri-environmental measures, a relatively new approach of preserving, enhancing and supporting biodiversity on agricultural areas: here, in the context of meadows and pastures and other habitats and landscape elements in mountain regions in Europe. The handbook provides policy recommendations for the effective design, implementation and governance of such measures that can be adopted by public bodies (governments, other responsible administrative bodies) as well as private organisations (NGOs or food chain managers)

    Result-oriented Measures for Biodiversity in Mountain Farming. A Policy Handbook

    No full text
    International audienceThis handbook is based on the results, reports, deliverables and user fora of a project entitled ‚ÄėMerit based income from sustainable land management in mountain farming‚Äô (MERIT). This research was carried out under the RURAGRI programme ; an ERA-NET supported by the European Commission and national governmental funding bodies under the 7th EU Framework research Programme (FP 7, CA 235175).This handbook is targeted at policy makers from governmental bodies, public authorities, farmers‚Äô associations as well as other private or public organizations involved and interested in the development and implementation of agri-environmental policies. It provides information about the implementation of result-oriented agri-environmental measures, a relatively new approach of preserving, enhancing and supporting biodiversity on agricultural areas: here, in the context of meadows and pastures and other habitats and landscape elements in mountain regions in Europe. The handbook provides policy recommendations for the effective design, implementation and governance of such measures that can be adopted by public bodies (governments, other responsible administrative bodies) as well as private organisations (NGOs or food chain managers)

    Enhancing neuroimaging genetics through meta-analysis for Tourette syndrome (ENIGMA-TS): A worldwide platform for collaboration

    No full text
    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics, and high-comorbidity rates with other neuropsychiatric disorders. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), major depressive disorder (MDD), and anxiety disorders (AXDs) are among the most prevalent TS comorbidities. To date, studies on TS brain structure and function have been limited in size with efforts mostly fragmented. This leads to low-statistical power, discordant results due to differences in approaches, and hinders the ability to stratify patients according to clinical parameters and investigate comorbidity patterns. Here, we present the scientific premise, perspectives, and key goals that have motivated the establishment of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis for TS (ENIGMA-TS) working group. The ENIGMA-TS working group is an international collaborative effort bringing together a large network of investigators who aim to understand brain structure and function in TS and dissect the underlying neurobiology that leads to observed comorbidity patterns and clinical heterogeneity. Previously collected TS neuroimaging data will be analyzed jointly and integrated with TS genomic data, as well as equivalently large and already existing studies of highly comorbid OCD, ADHD, ASD, MDD, and AXD. Our work highlights the power of collaborative efforts and transdiagnostic approaches, and points to the existence of different TS subtypes. ENIGMA-TS will offer large-scale, high-powered studies that will lead to important insights toward understanding brain structure and function and genetic effects in TS and related disorders, and the identification of biomarkers that could help inform improved clinical practice
    corecore