79,999 research outputs found

    A strut with infinitely adjustable thermal expansivity and length

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    A tubular strut with an integral mechanism for adjusting its thermal expansivity and length was developed to fulfill the stringent thermal stability requirements anticipated for the metering truss in the Large Space Telescope. Its features may be advantageously applied to a general variety of structures and precision mechanisms where dimensional control of component elements in a dynamic thermal environment is required. Detail, design, fabrication, and test of a developmental strut are discussed

    Reduced perplexity: Uncertainty measures without entropy

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    Conference paper presented at Recent Advances in Info-Metrics, Washington, DC, 2014. Under review for a book chapter in "Recent innovations in info-metrics: a cross-disciplinary perspective on information and information processing" by Oxford University Press.A simple, intuitive approach to the assessment of probabilistic inferences is introduced. The Shannon information metrics are translated to the probability domain. The translation shows that the negative logarithmic score and the geometric mean are equivalent measures of the accuracy of a probabilistic inference. Thus there is both a quantitative reduction in perplexity as good inference algorithms reduce the uncertainty and a qualitative reduction due to the increased clarity between the original set of inferences and their average, the geometric mean. Further insight is provided by showing that the Renyi and Tsallis entropy functions translated to the probability domain are both the weighted generalized mean of the distribution. The generalized mean of probabilistic inferences forms a Risk Profile of the performance. The arithmetic mean is used to measure the decisiveness, while the -2/3 mean is used to measure the robustness

    Safe recruitment, social justice, and ethical practice: should people who have criminal convictions be allowed to train as social workers?

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    Decision making in relation to admitting people to train as social workers is, either explicitly or implicitly, an ethical activity. This paper considers ethical and practical issues related to the processing of applicants to social work training in England who have criminal convictions. These issues are explored by focusing on policies that strengthen regulations that exclude ex-offenders from working with children and vulnerable adults. The admissions processes for social work education are analysed in terms of how they contribute to, or counteract, processes of social exclusion. The advice and guidance from the General Social Care Council of England (GSCC) is summarised and analysed. A case study of a social work education partnership grounds the ethical discussion by illustrating the complexities of engaging with combating social exclusion whilst seeking to ensure that the public is protected.</p

    Advertising Bans, Monopoly, and Alcohol Demand: Testing for Substitution Effects Using Panel Data

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    Using a panel of 45 states for the period 1982-97, this study analyzes the importance of several restrictive alcohol regulations, including advertising bans for billboards, bans of price advertising, state monopoly control of retail stores, and changes in the minimum legal drinking age. In contrast to previous research, the study allows for substitution among beverages as a response to a regulation that targets a specific beverage. A restrictive law that applies only to one beverage (or one form of advertising) can result in substitution toward other beverages (and other media). Allowing for substitution means that the net effect on total alcohol consumption is uncertain, and must be determined empirically. The empirical results demonstrate that monopoly control of spirits reduces consumption of that beverage, and increases consumption of wine. The effect on beer is positive, but is not statistically significant. The net effect on total alcohol is significantly negative. Higher minimum legal drinking age laws have negative effects on beverage and total alcohol consumption. Partial bans of advertising do not reduce total alcohol consumption, which in part reflects substitution effects. Results in the paper are applied to the Supreme Court's Central Hudson test for First Amendment constitutionality of restrictions on commercial speech.

    Alcohol Advertising and Advertising Bans: A Survey of Research Methods, Results, and Policy Implications

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    This chapter surveys the literatures on advertising bans and alcohol consumption or abuse, and advertising expenditures and alcohol consumption. Studies of state-level bans of billboards are examined as well as studies of international bans that cover broadcasting media. For expenditures, the survey concentrates on econometric methods and the existence of an industry advertising-sales response function. Selected results from survey-research studies of advertising and youth alcohol behaviors also are discussed. The chapter concludes that advertising bans do not reduce alcohol consumption or abuse; advertising expenditures do not have a market-wide expansion effect; and survey-research studies of youth behaviors are seriously incomplete as a basis for public policy. Results of the survey are applied to the Supreme Court's Central Hudson test for constitutionality of restrictions on commercial speech.

    A mathematical investigation of a heat transfer configuration

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    Solutions to heat transfer problems using Laplace transfor

    Advanced high-temperature batteries

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    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes
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