64,713 research outputs found

    Advanced high-temperature batteries

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    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes

    Limiting SUSY compressed spectra scenarios

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    Typical searches for supersymmetry cannot test models in which the two lightest particles have a small ("compressed") mass splitting, due to the small momentum of the particles produced in the decay of the second-to-lightest particle. However, datasets with large missing transverse momentum (ETmissE_{\rm T}^{\rm miss}) can generically search for invisible particle production and therefore provide constraints on such models. We apply data from the ATLAS mono-jet (jet+ETmissE_{\rm T}^{\rm miss}) and vector-boson-fusion (forward jets and ETmissE_{\rm T}^{\rm miss}) searches to such models. The two datasets have complementary sensitivity, but in all cases experimental limits are at least five times weaker than theoretical predictions

    Flow properties of suspensions rich in solids

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    Mathematical evaluation of flow properties of fluids carrying high concentrations of solids in suspension relates suspension viscosity to physical properties of the solids and liquids, and provides a means for predicting flow behavior. A technique for calculating a suspensions flow rates is applicable to the design of pipelines

    Study made of resistance of stainless steels to zinc-vapor corrosion

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    Study of the corrosion resistance of several stainless steels to zinc vapor revealed that some stainless steels could be employed for use in zinc processing equipment housings or vapor lines

    On the average uncertainty for systems with nonlinear coupling

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    The increased uncertainty and complexity of nonlinear systems have motivated investigators to consider generalized approaches to defining an entropy function. New insights are achieved by defining the average uncertainty in the probability domain as a transformation of entropy functions. The Shannon entropy when transformed to the probability domain is the weighted geometric mean of the probabilities. For the exponential and Gaussian distributions, we show that the weighted geometric mean of the distribution is equal to the density of the distribution at the location plus the scale, i.e. at the width of the distribution. The average uncertainty is generalized via the weighted generalized mean, in which the moment is a function of the nonlinear source. Both the Renyi and Tsallis entropies transform to this definition of the generalized average uncertainty in the probability domain. For the generalized Pareto and Student's t-distributions, which are the maximum entropy distributions for these generalized entropies, the appropriate weighted generalized mean also equals the density of the distribution at the location plus scale. A coupled entropy function is proposed, which is equal to the normalized Tsallis entropy divided by one plus the coupling.Comment: 24 pages, including 4 figures and 1 tabl

    What is the Brillouin Zone of an Anisotropic Photonic Crystal?

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    The concept of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in relation to a photonic crystal fabricated in an optically anisotropic material is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In experiment, we used femtosecond laser pulses to excite THz polaritons and image their propagation in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate photonic crystal (PhC) slabs. We directly measured the dispersion relation inside PhCs and observed that the lowest bandgap expected to form at the BZ boundary forms inside the BZ in the anisotropic lithium niobate PhC. Our analysis shows that in an anisotropic material the BZ - defined as the Wigner-Seitz cell in the reciprocal lattice - is no longer bounded by Bragg planes and thus does not conform to the original definition of the BZ by Brillouin. We construct an alternative Brillouin zone defined by Bragg planes and show its utility in identifying features of the dispersion bands. We show that for an anisotropic 2D PhC without dispersion, the Bragg plane BZ can be constructed by applying the Wigner-Seitz method to a stretched or compressed reciprocal lattice. We also show that in the presence of the dispersion in the underlying material or in a slab waveguide, the Bragg planes are generally represented by curved surfaces rather than planes. The concept of constructing a BZ with Bragg planes should prove useful in understanding the formation of dispersion bands in anisotropic PhCs and in selectively tailoring their optical properties.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

    Radiation counting technique allows density measurement of metals in high-pressure/ high-temperature environment

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    Radioactive tracers induced by neutron irradiation provide a gamma ray flux proportional to the density of a metal, allowing density measurement of these metals in extreme high-temperature and high-pressure environments. This concept is applicable to most metals, as well as other substances
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