2,619 research outputs found

    Telecommuting and Emissions Reductions: Evaluating Results from the ecommute Program

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    In 1999 Congress passed the National Air Quality and Telecommuting Act. This Act established pilot telecommuting programs in five major U.S. metropolitan areas with the express purpose of studying the feasibility of addressing air quality concerns through telecommuting. This study provides the first analysis of data from the “ecommute” program. Using two-and-one-half years of data, we look at telecommuting frequency, mode choice, and emissions reductions. We also look at reporting behavior, dropout rates, and other information to assess the program’s performance. We analyze results by city - Denver, Washington, D.C., Houston, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia are the five pilot cities. And finally, we use the program’s emissions reduction findings to calculate how much telecommuting would be needed to reach an annual volatile organic compounds emission reduction target in each city. This discussion paper is one in a series of four RFF papers on telecommuting published in December 2004. In addition to analysis of the ecommute data described in this paper, Safirova and Walls (discussion paper 04-43) similarly analyze data from a 2002 survey conducted by the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) of telecommuters and nontelecommuters. These same authors put these findings into context by providing a review of the empirical literature on telecommuting (discussion paper 04-44). Finally, Nelson presents an assessment of institutional and regulatory barriers to using telecommuting in a mobile source emissions trading program (04-45). The studies by RFF are part of a larger report on the ecommute program completed by the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. More information about the overall project can be found on the ecommute/GETF website: http://www.ecommute.net/program/.telecommuting, mode choice, air quality, emissions

    Telecommuting and environmental policy - lessons from the Ecommute program

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    In 1999 US Congress passed the National Air Quality and Telecommuting Act. This Act established pilot telecommuting programs (Ecommute) in five major US metropolitan areas with the express purpose of studying the feasibility of addressing air quality concerns through telecommuting. The major goal of the Ecommute program was to examine whether a particular type of economic incentive, tradable emissions credits from telecommuting, represents a viable strategy for reducing vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and improving air quality. Under the Ecommute program, companies could generate emissions credits by reducing the VMT of their workforce through telework programs. They would then be able to sell the credits to firms that needed the reductions to comply with air quality regulations. The paper provides analysis of the results of Ecommute program. First, we establish some context for evaluating whether the envisioned trading scheme represents a feasible approach to reducing mobile source emissions and promoting telecommuting and review the limited experience with mobile source emissions trading programs. We find that from a regulatory perspective, the most substantial drawback to such a program is its questionable environmental integrity, resulting from difficulties in designing a sufficiently rigorous quantification protocols to accurately measure the emissions reductions from telecommuting. And perhaps more importantly, such a program is not likely to be cost-effective since the emissions reductions from a single telecommuter are very small. The paper also presents the first analysis of data collected from the Ecommute program. Using two-and-one-half years of data, we look at telecommuting frequency, mode choice, and emissions reductions as well as at reporting behavior and dropout rates. Finally, we use the program's emissions reductions findings to calculate how much telecommuting would be needed to reach an annual volatile organic compounds emission reduction target in each city.

    My Uncle Paul

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    Alien Registration- Nelson, Margaret (Presque Isle, Aroostook County)

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    https://digitalmaine.com/alien_docs/33611/thumbnail.jp

    Is It Really Just All About Sex and Money? A Case Study of Teenage Motherhood in the Village of KwaXimba in the Valley of a 1,000 Hills

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    The aim of this learnership at the Valley Trust was to gain insight into why teenage girls in the Valley of the 1,000 Hills fall pregnant and what is the cost of early motherhood on the future of young women. Previous research of the province KwaZulu-Natal has revealed that teenage pregnancies are a large problem in school districts and restricting the future academic pursuits of teenage mothers. The learner worked alongside the Valley Trust in coordination with their outreach programs in the local villages of the Valley of a 1,000 Hills to learn fundamental and underlying reasons behind teenage pregnancy in the rural areas of the Valley of a 1,000 Hills. The learner gained primary data on teenage pregnancies through interviewing school-aged girls over the age of eighteen and by conducting a focus group of teenage mothers in KwaXimba. In these interviews and focus group the learner sought to acquire insight on the future limitations, struggles, and aspirations of adolescent girls to construct a body map detailing the learner’s perception of teenage pregnancy and an adolescent girl’s pursuit of womanhood. Through both the Valley Trust outreach programs and focus groups, the learner sought to understand the opportunity cost of being a South African teenage mother in the Valley. Through interviews the learner found that peer pressure and poverty were major causes of teenage pregnancy in the area, but the issue of peer pressure went beyond friends and peer groups to include pressure from parents. The role of mothers pressuring their daughters into sexual relationships in search of money illustrated the dire economical need of families in the area and the cycle of teenage motherhood. Data obtained by the learner from teenage mothers repeatedly contradicted itself illustrating the complicated nature of adolescent pregnancies

    No One Should Have to Give Birth Alone: An Analysis of the Efficacy of Community-based Doula Programs Serving Ethnic Minorities in San Francisco

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    Adverse birth outcomes for both the parent and the child disproportionately affect people of color. Evidence demonstrates that one of the ways to mitigate these negative consequences is through the utilization of a doula, a trained birth companion that is not a medical provider but whose role it is to physically and emotionally support the patient through pregnancy, birth, and postpartum. Community-based doula programs, where the doula is of the same cultural background as the client, are particularly effective in improving birth outcomes in communities of color by providing culturally competent care and helping to navigate a healthcare system that continues to demonstrate the pervasiveness of institutionalized racism. Despite their efficacy, community-based doula programs face a number of challenges, including funding constraints, ongoing COVID-19 disruptions to care, and a lack of public awareness about the benefit and availability of doula services

    Towards an Understanding of Taiwan: (Area Profiles and Annotated Bibliography) A Research Guide for New Missionaries

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    Involvement in cross-cultural missionary service is demanding. The new missionary arriving on the field is immediately confronted by a new language, a new culture, a new climate, and new obstacles to Christianity, The tasks of coping with strange customs, adapting to a different climate, learning the language, getting acquainted with· the people, and fitting into the existing missionary program all at once result in a heavy burden on the new missionary

    Voicing the unspoken: Breaking through the barriers of mainstream institutionalized deafness to Pacific therapeutic practices

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    This paper explores the development of two significant crosscultural research projects in Pasifika psychology. Both projects were designed to speak into the “silent space” of unexplored Pasifika practices and needs in the field of mental health
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