63 research outputs found

    The effect of warm-up on swimming performance: the impact of volume, intensity and post warm-up recovery in elite swimmers

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    Warming-up before training or competition has become one of the most interesting topics in sport sciences in the last years. The technical and scientific community has been aware of the key role of warm up in swimming performance and the deepening of the knowledge on this subject is presented as an asset to optimize training and competition performance. Thus, the purpose of this work was to analyze the effects of warm-up on 100 m freestyle swimming performance in high-level swimmers. In addition, we intended to verify the effects of different volumes, intensities and post warm-up recovery times, by measuring the performance, and the biomechanical, physiological and psychophysiological responses of the swimmers. For the accomplishment of these purposes the following sequence was used: (i) reviewing the available literature; (ii) comparing the warm-up and no warm-up condition on 100 m freestyle; (iii) assessing three different volumes of warm-up, with the same intensity, and their effects on 100 m freestyle; (iv) analyzing two different intensities (race-pace vs. aerobic stimulation) on the 100 m race; (v) comparing two different post warm-up periods on the 100 m freestyle. The main conclusions drawn were (i) there is a limited research on warm-up and its structure in swimming; (ii) the warm-up improved swimming performance on 100 m freestyle race; (iii) the volume of warm-up should be up to 1200 m, with the risk of impaired performances with longer warm-ups; (iv) the stimulation of aerobic metabolism during warm-up is a reliable alternative to traditional race-pace; (v) the positive effects of warm-up, as increased core temperature, oxygen uptake, and heart rate are reduced over time and warm-up should be performed close to the race; (vi) different biomechanical patterns were used in response to the different warm-ups and these protocols could be used according to race strategy. In addition, it can be stated that high-level swimmers presented an individual adaptation to each warm-up design. Our results give clear remarks about the effects of volume, intensity and recovery periods and main physiological and biomechanical changes. These findings can be used by coaches and researches as a source for development of individual approaches or/and for further investigations.O aquecimento antes do treino e da competi√ß√£o tem-se tornado um dos t√≥picos mais interessantes de investiga√ß√£o em Ci√™ncias do Desporto nos √ļltimos anos. A comunidade t√©cnica e cient√≠fica est√° consciente do papel fundamental do aquecimento no rendimento em nata√ß√£o e o aprofundar do seu conhecimento √© apresentado enquanto um trunfo para otimizar a performance de nado. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos do aquecimento na prova de 100 m livres em nadadores de elevado n√≠vel. Pretendemos analisar os efeitos da utiliza√ß√£o de diferentes volumes, intensidades e per√≠odos de recupera√ß√£o p√≥s aquecimento, atrav√©s da avalia√ß√£o da performance e de vari√°veis biomec√Ęnicas, fisiol√≥gicas e psicofisiol√≥gicas. Para tal, foram adotados os seguintes passos: (i) revis√£o da literatura; (ii) compara√ß√£o entre a realiza√ß√£o ou n√£o de aquecimento antes dos 100 m livres; (iii) avalia√ß√£o de tr√™s diferentes volumes de aquecimento, com a mesma intensidade, e os seus efeitos nos 100 m livres; (iv) an√°lise da influ√™ncia de duas intensidades de aquecimento (ritmo de prova vs. estimula√ß√£o aer√≥bia) nos 100 m livres; (v) compara√ß√£o de dois diferentes intervalos de recupera√ß√£o ap√≥s o aquecimento. As principais conclus√Ķes que adv√™m do trabalho s√£o as seguintes: (i) existe pouca literatura e conhecimento limitado acerca dos efeitos do aquecimento e da sua estrutura em nata√ß√£o; (ii) o aquecimento √© ben√©fico para os 100 m livres; (iii) um volume de aquecimento at√© aos 1200 m parece ser o mais apropriado para a otimiza√ß√£o dos 100 m livres, sendo que maiores volumes podem comprometer a performance; (iv) a estimula√ß√£o aer√≥bia durante o aquecimento √© uma alternativa vi√°vel ao ritmo de prova tradicional; (v) os efeitos positivos do aquecimento, como a temperatura, a frequ√™ncia card√≠aca e o consumo de oxig√©nio, diminuem ao longo do tempo e o aquecimento deve ser realizado o mais pr√≥ximo poss√≠vel da prova; (vi) existem diferentes respostas biomec√Ęnicas √†s diferences condi√ß√Ķes testadas, informa√ß√£o que poder√° ser √ļtil para preparar a estrat√©gia de prova. √Č ainda de referir que os nadadores de elevado n√≠vel apresentam adapta√ß√Ķes individuais em fun√ß√£o de cada aquecimento. Os efeitos do volume, intensidade e intervalos entre o aquecimento e a prova, assim como as principais adapta√ß√Ķes fisiol√≥gicas e biomec√Ęnicas, podem ser utilizados por treinadores e investigadores para desenvolvimento de abordagens individualizadas e investiga√ß√Ķes futuras

    Can Interpersonal Behavior Influence the Persistence and Adherence to Physical Exercise Practice in Adults? A Systematic Review

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    Objective: Motivation seems to be a fundamental indicator of long-term physical exercise adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) argues that social environment plays a central role in the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, which might directly affect the quality of one’s motivation. Individuals who appear to be more self-determined tend to persist longer at certain behaviors. Therefore, this body of work intends to analyze the relationship between motivational variables and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context, having as theoretical background the Self-Determination Theory. Methods: This systematic review was conducted through an electronic search on Web of Science, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Data such as instruments, main predictors and results were collected from studies published between 1985 and 2018. A total of 35 empirical studies were considered for a detailed analysis. Results: Results showed the relevance of autonomy support performed by exercise professionals, as well as the major contribution that these behaviors have toward the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, besides the inherent benefits of developing more autonomous regulations. According to the literature, few studies have analyzed interpersonal thwarting behavior and the way this relates to basic psychological needs’ frustration. Nether less, there seems to be a negative relationship between less self-determined regulations and exercise practice. Conclusion: Despite the existence of numerous cross-sectional studies that demonstrate positive correlations between SDT and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context, longitudinal research that analyzes all six dimensions of interpersonal behaviors and their relationship with persistence and adherence to exercise proves to be crucial. However, according to this review, interventions based on SDT appear to be fundamental when it comes to promote the maintenance of a long-term exercise practice.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Body fat in prepubertal boys: different training program`s designs

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    This project was supported by the National Funds through FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UID/DTP/04045/2013) - and the European Fund for regional development (FEDER) allocated by European Union through the COMPETE 2020 Programme (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006969), and it was supported by the Project NanoSTIMA: Macro-toNano Human Sensing, Towards Integrated Multimodal Health Monitoring and Analytics, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000016, co-financed by European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER) - NORTE 2020Research studies agreed that strength and aerobic training either combined or performed separately promote bone density, aerobic capacity, and explosive strength improvements in childhood. Nevertheless, there still is uncertainty regarding to the best training program to be implemented that efficiently improve body fat percentage. The current study aimed to compare different training program‚Äôs designs on body fat percentage in prepubertal boys.One hundred twenty-three boys (10.93 ¬Ī 0.57 years) were randomly assigned into five experimental groups to perform different training protocols for 8 weeks: strength-only (SG), aerobic-only (AG), inter-session concurrent aerobic-strength training (ASG_2), intra-session concurrent aerobic-strength training (ASG), intra-session concurrent strength-aerobic training (SAG), and a control group, no training (CG). SG, AG, ASG and SAG groups performed single sessions two days per week. ASG_2 group performed on different days each week (two and two days per week). The strength training program comprised plyometric exercises (medicine ball throws and jumps) and sprint running. The aerobic training program comprised the 20m shuttle run exercise. Body fat percentage was assessed using a body composition analyzer (Tanita TBF-300A) before and after the 8-weeks of the training program.Body fat percentage showed significant decrements from pre- to the post-training in the ASG_2 (17.6%, p=0.004), SG (16.1%, p=0.000), and SAG (17.7%, p=0.000) groups. There was an impairment in the ASG (4.2%, p=0.492) and control group CG (16.8%, p=0.000). No differences were presented in the AG (p=0.053).The order of intra-session concurrent training influenced body fat percentage changes. Moreover, performing intra-session concurrent strength and aerobic training is more useful than strength or aerobic training only and concurrent training in different sessions to decrease body fat percentage in prepubertal boys. These results have a meaningful interest to optimized school-based fat loss exercise programs in childhood

    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Physical Education Class and the Differences between Two Educational Pathways

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    This study aimed to determine the most and least important reasons for engaging in physical education classes among students in two educational pathways within the context of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Forty-one students participated in the study (25 males and 16 females; mean age = 16.37 ¬Ī 0.829). The sample was divided based on two class types: regular education and professional education. All students answered a questionnaire that aimed to verify the most and least important reasons for students to engage in physical education classes concerning intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.  Indicated that both regular education and professional education classes had intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The results also revealed that the participation of students was based essentially on their intrinsic motivation, but for different reasons when comparing the two educational pathways. Both types of the class were intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to participate in physical education classes

    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological aspects and mental health of elite soccer athletes: a systematic review

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    IntroductionInvestigation of the psychological impact on soccer athletes during the pandemic is essential given their unique challenges, including training disruptions and competition postponements. Understanding these effects will allow the development of specific strategies to preserve the mental health and performance of elite athletes, contributing to effective interventions with both short and long-term benefits.ObjectiveTo analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological aspects and mental health of elite soccer athletes.MethodThe review adhered to PRISMA criteria, and the study protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42022341545). Searches were conducted until July 2023 in databases including Cochrane, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Only original, peer-reviewed studies in English, Portuguese, or Spanish assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological aspects and mental health of elite soccer athletes were included.ResultsThe search identified 1,055 records and 43 studies were included in this review between 2020 and 2023. In total, the sample included 16,321 soccer athletes of different age groups. Anxiety, depression, mood states, and mental well-being were the most investigated variables. Increased levels of anxiety, depression, and worsening mental well-being were observed in elite soccer athletes. Maintaining fitness during the pandemic showed positive results. Other variables, such as coping, resilience, and sleep quality monitoring, were less widely investigated. Evaluating methodological quality was considered regular for observational and experimental studies.ConclusionThe study reveals a negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on elite soccer athletes, considering psychological aspects and their mental health, notably heightened anxiety and depression. Observational methods predominated, showing mood swings linked to individual characteristics and fitness maintenance efforts. Studies with better-designed methodological approaches and controlled experimental interventions are recommended in the future to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic on soccer players.Systematic review registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?, identifier (CRD42022341545)

    Assessing Need Satisfaction and Frustration in Portuguese Exercise Instructors: scale validity, reliabity and invariance between gender

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    Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale in Exercise for fitness instructors. Methods: Data from 477 exercise professionals (319 males, 158 females) was collected. Results: CFA supported the adapted and validated six-factor model: [Ōá2(237) = 1096.796, Ōá2/df= 4.63; B-S p < .001, CFI = .930, TLI = .918, SRMR= .0366, RMSEA = .079 (CI90% = .069, .089)], assessing satisfaction and frustration of basic psychological needs in Portuguese exercise professionals. Moreover, the analysis revealed acceptable composite reliability, and construct validity of the adapted version. Results revealed nomological validity, as well as invariance between male and female. No differences were found across latent means, and magnitude effects were trivial between gender. Conclusion: These results support the use of the adapted scale in exercise professionals, showing measurement invariance between gender. This scale is able to measure how exercise professionals experience satisfaction and frustration of basic needs when prescribing exercise to individuals in fitness context.   Key-words: self-determination theory, exercise, basic needs, interpersonal behaviors, exercise instructorsObjetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue validar la Escala de Satisfacci√≥n y Frustraci√≥n de Necesidades Psicol√≥gicas B√°sicas en el Ejercicio para instructores de ejercicio f√≠sico. M√©todos: Se recopilaron datos de 477 profesionales del ejercicio (319 hombres, 158 mujeres). Resultados: CFA apoy√≥ el modelo de seis factores adaptado y validado: [Ōá2 (237) = 1096.796, Ōá2 / df = 4.63; B-S p <.001, CFI = .930, TLI = .918, SRMR = .0366, RMSEA = .079 (CI90% = .069, .089)], evaluando la satisfacci√≥n y la frustraci√≥n de las necesidades psicol√≥gicas b√°sicas en los profesionales del ejercicio portugu√©s. Adem√°s, el an√°lisis revel√≥ una validez en la confiabilidad compuesta, constructo y nomol√≥gica aceptables de la versi√≥n adaptada, as√≠ como invariabilidad entre hombres y mujeres. No se encontraron diferencias entre las medias latentes, y los efectos de magnitud fueron triviales entre los g√©neros. Conclusi√≥n: estos resultados apoyan el uso de la escala adaptada en los profesionales del ejercicio, que muestran la invariancia de la medici√≥n entre los g√©neros. Esta escala es capaz de medir c√≥mo los profesionales del ejercicio experimentan la satisfacci√≥n y la frustraci√≥n de las necesidades b√°sicas, y c√≥mo regulan los comportamientos interpersonales.   Palabras-clave: teor√≠a de la autodeterminaci√≥n, ejercicio, necesidades b√°sicas, comportamientos interpersonales, instructores de ejercici

    Stand up paddle. identificação dos contributos científicos através de uma revisão sistemática

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    O Stand Up Paddle (SUP) apresenta-se como um desporto com um forte aumento de popularidade nomeadamente na √ļltima d√©cada. Neste estudo de revis√£o sistem√°tica, objetivou-se a compila√ß√£o do conhecimento desenvolvido na √ļltima d√©cada, referente tema do stand up paddle. Considerando as caracter√≠sticas desta metodologia, a operacionaliza√ß√£o do estudo √© de natureza qualitativa. Os estudos foram recolhidos atrav√©s das distintas fontes diferenciadas: bases de dados eletr√≥nicas (web of knowledge, b-on, rcaap), e disserta√ß√Ķes de mestrado e doutoramento. As palavras-chave utilizadas para a pesquisas foram, em portugu√™s: ‚ÄúStand Up Paddle‚ÄĚ, ‚ÄúSUP‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúdesportos aqu√°ticos‚Äú, ‚Äúbiomec√Ęnica‚Äú, ‚Äúfisiologia‚Äú, ‚Äúpagaiada‚Äú, ‚Äúatividade muscular‚Äú, ‚Äúcinesiologia‚Äú, ‚Äúfun√ß√£o card√≠aca‚Äú, ‚Äút√©cnica‚Äú e em ingl√™s, ‚ÄúStand Up Paddle‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúSUP‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúAquatic Sports‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúBiomechanics‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúPhysiology‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúPaddle‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúMuscle activity‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄĚKinesiolology‚Äú; ‚ÄĚHeart Function‚Äú; ‚ÄĚTechnique‚Äú. Inicialmente, todos os estudos que apresentavam no t√≠tulo uma das palavras-chave foram selecionados para leitura. Contudo, das 47 produ√ß√Ķes cient√≠ficas listadas, somente 38 atenderam aos crit√©rios de inclus√£o: estudos emp√≠ricos dos √ļltimos 10 anos, disserta√ß√Ķes acad√©micas e artigos com peer review. Resultaram em 38 produ√ß√Ķes cient√≠ficas selecionadas, das quais 36 artigos de revistas e 2 disserta√ß√Ķes acad√©micas. Os diferentes autores preferencialmente colocaram no seu t√≠tulo de estudo, o ‚ÄúSUP‚ÄĚ, ou ‚ÄúStand Up Paddle‚Äú.Stand Up Paddle (SUP) presents itself as a sport with a strong increase in popularity, namely in the last decade. In this systematic review study, the aim was to compile the knowledge developed in the last decade on the topic of stand up paddle. Considering the characteristics of this methodology, the operationalization of the study is qualitative in nature. The studies were collected through different sources: electronic databases (web of knowledge, b-on, rcaap,) and master's and doctoral dissertations. The keywords used for the research were, in Portuguese and English "Stand Up Paddle", "SUP", "water sports", "biomechanics", "physiology", "pagiada", "muscle activity", "kinesiology", " cardiac function‚Äú, ‚Äútechnique‚ÄĚ and in. Initially, all studies that had one of the keywords in the title were selected for reading. However, of the 47 scientific productions listed, only 38 met the inclusion criteria: empirical studies from the last 10 years, academic dissertations and peer-reviewed articles. They resulted in 38 selected scientific productions, of which 36 journal articles and 2 academic dissertations. The different authors preferentially put in their study title, the ‚ÄúSUP‚ÄĚ, or ‚ÄúStand Up Paddle‚Äú.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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    Funding Information: This research was funded through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), I.P., under Project UIDB04045/2020. Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2022, The Author(s).Background: Physical activity is essential in acquiring healthy lifestyle behaviors in the early years of maturational development and preventing various diseases. Resistance training (RT) is fundamental for improving body composition and is increasingly recommended for obese adolescents. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to synthesize and analyze data on the effects of RT programs in this population, seeking to develop useful recommendations for health and sports professionals. Methods: A search was performed using four databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect). According to specific inclusion criteria, twenty-one studies were selected to evaluate the impact of RT on body mass index (BMI), body fat, waist circumference, muscle strength, insulin sensitivity, lean mass and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results: After the RT programs, the adolescents improved their muscle strength (SMD, 1.44; 95% CI: 0.76‚Äď2.12), cardiorespiratory fitness (SMD, 1.09; 95% CI: 0.15‚Äď2.04), BMI (SMD, 0.21; 95% CI: 0.07‚Äď0.35), waist circumference (SMD, 0.27; 95% CI: 0.06‚Äď0.47) and body fat (SMD, 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05‚Äď0.34). However, insulin sensitivity (SMD, 0.32; 95% CI: ‚ąí 0.47 to 1.10) and lean mass (SMD, 0.12; 95% CI: ‚ąí 0.06 to 0.31) did not reveal any changes. Different RT programs were used but it seems that 2‚Äď3 times/week ‚ąľ60¬†min/session of RT for 12¬†weeks should be recommended for positive changes. Conclusions: RT seems to be effective when the objective is to improve muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and can be an efficient strategy to reduce obesity in adolescents by reducing body fat, waist circumference and body mass index. PROSPERO Registration number: CRD42022333411.publishersversionpublishe
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