13,187 research outputs found

    The economic impact of drag in general aviation

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    General aviation aircraft fuel consumption and operating costs are closely linked to drag reduction methods. Improvements in airplane drag are envisioned for new models; their effects will be in the 5 to 10% range. Major improvements in fuel consumption over existing turbofan airplanes will be the combined results of improved aerodynamics plus additional effects from advanced turbofan engine designs

    Overview of external Nacelle drag and interference drag

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    A historical view of multi-jet engine installations is given that emphasizes integration of the powerplant and the airframe in aircraft design for improved reduction in external nacelle drag and interference drag characteristics

    Learjet model 25 drag analysis

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    Procedures and data for estimating drag were used to calculate the drag characteristics of the Model 25 airplane. Based on cruise flight test data obtained on the Model 25, these methods generally predicted the total drag characteristics within current acceptable and reasonable engineering accuracy

    The effect of the transport property models on the shuttle boundary layer

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    Theoretical solutions for the nonsimilar, laminar boundary-layer were computed for four points along the shuttle entry trajectory. Since the boundary layer is that region of the flow field where the effects of viscosity and of thermal conductivity are most important, numerical solutions for the boundary layer were generated using different models for the transport properties. These solutions indicate that the displacement thickness and the heat-transfer rates are very sensitive to changes in the models for thermal conductivity and for specific heat. Thus, the solutions are sensitive to the assumed transport-property model

    Spin-axis attitude estimation and magnetometer bias determination for the AMPTE mission

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    Algorithms were developed for magnetometer biases and spin axis attitude calculation. Numerical examples of the performance of the algorithm are given

    Rheological study of structural transitions in triblock copolymers in a liquid crystal solvent

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    Rheological properties of triblock copolymers dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal (LC) solvent demonstrate that their microphase separated structure is heavily influenced by changes in LC order. Nematic gels were created by swelling a well-defined, high molecular weight ABA block copolymer with the small-molecule nematic LC solvent 4-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The B midblock is a side-group liquid crystal polymer (SGLCP) designed to be soluble in 5CB and the A endblocks are polystyrene, which is LC-phobic and microphase separates to produce a physically cross-linked, thermoreversible, macroscopic polymer network. At sufficiently low polymer concentration a plateau modulus in the nematic phase, characteristic of a gel, abruptly transitions to terminal behavior when the gel is heated into its isotropic phase. In more concentrated gels, endblock aggregates persist into the isotopic phase. Dramatic changes in network structure are observed over small temperature windows (as little as 1 °C) due to tccche rapidly changing LC order near the isotropization point. The discontinuous change in solvent quality produces an abrupt change in viscoelastic properties for three polymers having different pendant mesogenic groups and matched block lengths

    Oxidation processes in magneto-optic and related materials

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    The surface oxidation processes of thin films of magneto-optic materials, such as the rare-earth transition metal alloys have been studied, starting in ultrahigh vacuum environments, using surface analysis techniques, as a way of modeling the oxidation processes which occur at the base of a defect in an overcoated material, at the instant of exposure to ambient environments. Materials examined have included FeTbCo alloys, as well as those same materials with low percentages of added elements, such a Ta, and their reactivities to both O2 and H2O compared with materials such as thin Fe films coated with ultrathin adlayers of Ti. The surface oxidation pathways for these materials is reviewed, and XPS data presented which indicates the type of oxides formed, and a critical region of Ta concentration which provides optimum protection

    Abell 2111: An Optical and Radio Study of the Richest Butcher-Oemler Cluster

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    We present an in-depth analysis of the Butcher-Oemler cluster A2111, including new optical spectroscopy plus a deep Very Large Array (VLA) radio continuum observation. These are combined with optical imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to assess the activity and properties of member galaxies. Prior X-ray studies have suggested A2111 is a head-on cluster merger, a dynamical state which might be connected to the high level of activity inferred from its blue fraction. We are able to directly assess this claim, using our spectroscopic data to identify 95 cluster members among 196 total galaxy spectra. These galaxy velocities do not themselves provide significant evidence for the merger interpretation, however they are consistent with it provided the system is viewed near the time of core passage and at a viewing angle >~30 degrees different from the merger axis. The SDSS data allow us to confirm the high blue fraction for A2111, f_b = 0.15 +/- 0.03 based on photometry alone and f_b = 0.23 +/- 0.03 using spectroscopic data to remove background galaxies. We are able to detect 175 optical sources from the SDSS in our VLA radio data, of which 35 have redshift information. We use the SDSS photometry to determine photometric redshifts for the remaining 140 radio-optical sources. In total we identify up to 26 cluster radio galaxies, 14 of which have spectroscopic redshifts. The optical spectroscopy and radio data reveal a substantial population of dusty starbursts within the cluster. The high blue fraction and prevalence of star formation is consistent with the hypothesis that dynamically-active clusters are associated with more active member galaxies than relaxed clusters.Comment: To appear in AJ; 53 pages including 10 figures and several long table

    Linear array of photodiodes to track a human speaker for video recording

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    Communication and collaboration using stored digital media has garnered more interest by many areas of business, government and education in recent years. This is due primarily to improvements in the quality of cameras and speed of computers. An advantage of digital media is that it can serve as an effective alternative when physical interaction is not possible. Video recordings that allow for viewers to discern a presenter's facial features, lips and hand motions are more effective than videos that do not. To attain this, one must maintain a video capture in which the speaker occupies a significant portion of the captured pixels. However, camera operators are costly, and often do an imperfect job of tracking presenters in unrehearsed situations. This creates motivation for a robust, automated system that directs a video camera to follow a presenter as he or she walks anywhere in the front of a lecture hall or large conference room. Such a system is presented. The system consists of a commercial, off-the-shelf pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) color video camera, a necklace of infrared LEDs and a linear photodiode array detector. Electronic output from the photodiode array is processed to generate the location of the LED necklace, which is worn by a human speaker. The computer controls the video camera movements to record video of the speaker. The speaker's vertical position and depth are assumed to remain relatively constant– the video camera is sent only panning (horizontal) movement commands. The LED necklace is flashed at 70Hz at a 50% duty cycle to provide noise-filtering capability. The benefit to using a photodiode array versus a standard video camera is its higher frame rate (4kHz vs. 60Hz). The higher frame rate allows for the filtering of infrared noise such as sunlight and indoor lighting–a capability absent from other tracking technologies. The system has been tested in a large lecture hall and is shown to be effective.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/98636/1/1742-6596_396_6_062005.pd
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