125 research outputs found

    High school students who experienced a concussion are more likely to report indicators of depression: A cross-sectional examination using the 2017 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey

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    Objective: To examine the relationship between a history of concussions and depressive indicators in high school students. Methods: 2017 Vermont Youth Behavior Risk Survey data (n = 26,962) was used to evaluate a potential association between concussions and depressive indicators in 20,653 eligible high schoolers using a multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for covariates. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis using a dichotomous concussion variable revealed that the odds of reporting one or more depression indicators were greater for individuals reporting at least one concussion in the past year compared to individuals who did not report any concussions, controlling for all covariates (OR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.40). Subsequent sensitivity analysis demonstrated that odds of reporting one or more depression indicators increased 12.4% with each additional concussion up to the four-concussion study maximum, controlling for all covariates (95% CI: 1.07, 1.18). Conclusion: Concussions are significantly associated with depressive indicators in high school students, and odds of reporting depressive indicators increases with each additional concussion. Consequently, students with concussions are at greater risk for depressive , and future studies should elucidate this association using prospective methodology

    The Mental Health Benefits of Purposeful Activities in Public Green Spaces in Urban and Semi-Urban Neighbourhoods : A Mixed-Methods Pilot and Proof of Concept Study

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    Access and exposure to public green space might be critical to health promotion and prevention of mental ill health. However, it is uncertain if differential health and mental health benefits are associated with undertaking different activities in public green space. We evaluated the health and wellbeing benefits of different activities in different locations of public green spaces in urban and semi-urban areas. We used a mixed-methods before-and-after design. Volunteers at three conservation sites were recruited and took part in group guided walks, practical conservation tasks or citizen science. Repeated measures one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni correction assessed the relationship between location and activity type on change in acute subjective mood from pre- to post-activity, measured with the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UWIST-MACL). Qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken and analysed thematically to explore participants’ perceptions about the health and wellbeing benefits of activities in public green space. Forty-five participants were recruited, leading to 65 independent observations. Walking, conservation and citizen science in public green space were associated with improved mood. Across all participants acute subjective mood improved across all domains of the UWIST-MACL. There was a significant association between reduction in stress and location (p = 0.009). Qualitatively participants reported that conservation and citizen science conferred co-benefits to the environment and individual health and well-being and were perceived as purposeful. Undertaking purposeful activity in public green space has the potential to promote health and prevent mental ill health

    When benefit eligibility and patient-led care intersect. Living in the UK with chronic illness:Experiences of the work capability assessment

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    Individuals living with chronic physical health conditions are more likely to be out-of-work than other groups. Often framed as a 'response' to these statistics, many countries have introduced policy instruments for promoting the employment of individuals with chronic conditions. This qualitative study sought to explore the impact of welfare reforms on UK individuals. Employing a phenomenological approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five participants living with chronic conditions. Three themes were generated using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: 'intersubjective sense making of the condition'; 'battles for control' and 'the fluidity and strengthening of identity'. Implications for further, holistic, policy reform are explored

    Transformation in a changing climate: a research agenda

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    The concept of transformation in relation to climate and other global change is increasingly receiving attention. The concept provides important opportunities to help examine how rapid and fundamental change to address contemporary global challenges can be facilitated. This paper contributes to discussions about transformation by providing a social science, arts and humanities perspective to open up discussion and set out a research agenda about what it means to transform and the dimensions, limitations and possibilities for transformation. Key focal areas include: (1) change theories, (2) knowing whether transformation has occurred or is occurring; (3) knowledge production and use; (4), governance; (5) how dimensions of social justice inform transformation; (6) the limits of human nature; (7) the role of the utopian impulse; (8) working with the present to create new futures; and (9) human consciousness. In addition to presenting a set of research questions around these themes the paper highlights that much deeper engagement with complex social processes is required; that there are vast opportunities for social science, humanities and the arts to engage more directly with the climate challenge; that there is a need for a massive upscaling of efforts to understand and shape desired forms of change; and that, in addition to helping answer important questions about how to facilitate change, a key role of the social sciences, humanities and the arts in addressing climate change is to critique current societal patterns and to open up new thinking. Through such critique and by being more explicit about what is meant by transformation, greater opportunities will be provided for opening up a dialogue about change, possible futures and about what it means to re-shape the way in which people live

    Natural CO2 sites in Italy show importance of overburden geopressure, fractures and faults for CO2 storage performance and risk management

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    The study of natural analogues can inform the long-term performance security of engineered CO2 storage. There are natural CO2 reservoirs and CO2 seeps in Italy. Here, we study nine reservoirs and establish which are sealed or are leaking CO2 to surface. Their characteristics are compared to elucidate which conditions control CO2 leakage. All of the case studies would fail current CO2 storage site selection criteria, though only two leak CO2 to surface. The factors found to systematically affect seal performance are overburden geopressure and proximity to modern extensional faults. Amongst our case studies, the sealing reservoirs show elevated overburden geopressure whereas the leaking reservoirs don’t. Since the leaking reservoirs are located within <10 km of modern extensional faults, pressure equilibration within the overburden may be facilitated by enhanced crustal permeability related to faulting. Modelling of the properties that could enable the observed CO2 leakage rates finds high permeability pathways (such as transmissive faults or fractures) become increasingly necessary to sustain leak rates as CO2 density decreases during ascent to surface, regardless of the leakage mechanism into the overburden. This work illustrates the value of characterising the overburden geology during CO2 storage site selection to inform screening criterion, risk assessment and monitoring strategy

    Perceptions of safe staffing, self-reported mental wellbeing and intentions to leave the profession among UK social workers:a mixed methods study

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    The purpose of the present study was to examine social workers perceptions of safe staffing levels and correlate these perceptions with standardised measurements of wellbeing in the UK. This cross-sectional mixed methods study analysed data from 406 social workers from November 2022 until late January 2023. Data were collected using anonymous online surveys including both qualitative and quantitative methods examining mental wellbeing, burnout, and intentions to leave the profession post-COVID-19. Findings revealed that only one-third of social workers responding perceived that they work in an environment of safe staffing. There were also significant differences in wellbeing and an increase in personal, work-related, and client-related burnout in social workers who believed their service did not operate a safe staff-to-service user ratio. Likewise, compared to those who perceived their service to operate within a safe staff-to-service-user ratio, those who perceived unsafe ratios were more likely to communicate their intention to leave the profession. Qualitative findings helped contextualize the quantitative results. These findings suggest that increased demand for social work services, shortage of qualified social workers, high workloads, inadequate resources, and retention problems, contribute to additional pressure on existing staff and have implications for policy, practice, and research in social work

    Implementation of an e-Learning course in physical activity and sedentary behavior for pre- and in-service early childhood educators: Evaluation of the TEACH pilot study

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    Background: Childcare-based physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) interventions have traditionally used in-person training to supplement early childhood educators’ (ECEs) knowledge and confidence to facilitate physically active programming for the children in their care. However, this method of delivery is resource-intensive and unable to reach a high number of ECEs. The purpose of the Training pre-service EArly CHildhood educators in PA (TEACH) pilot study was to test the implementation (e.g., fidelity, feasibility, acceptability) of an e-Learning course targeting PA and SB among a sample of pre-service (i.e., post-secondary students) and in-service (i.e., practicing) ECEs in Canada. Methods: A pre-/post-study design was adopted for this pilot study, and implementation outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally at post-intervention. Pre-service ECEs were purposefully recruited from three Canadian colleges and in-service ECEs were recruited via social media. Upon completing the e-Learning course, process evaluation surveys (n = 32 pre-service and 121 in-service ECEs) and interviews (n = 3 pre-service and 8 in-service ECEs) were completed to gather ECEs’ perspectives on the e-Learning course. Fidelity was measured via e-Learning course metrics retrieved from the web platform. Descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative data, and thematic analysis was conducted to analyze qualitative data. Results: Moderate-to-high fidelity to the TEACH study e-Learning course was exhibited by pre-service (68%) and in-service (63%) ECEs. Participants reported that the course was highly acceptable, compatible, effective, feasible, and appropriate in complexity; however, some ECEs experienced technical difficulties with the e-Learning platform and noted a longer than anticipated course duration. The most enjoyed content for pre- and in-service ECEs focused on outdoor play (87.5% and 91.7%, respectively) and risky play (84.4% and 88.4%, respectively). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the value of e-Learning for professional development interventions for ECEs. Participant feedback will be used to make improvements to the TEACH e-Learning course to improve scalability of this training
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