22,230 research outputs found

    Gas-Rich Companions of Isolated Galaxies

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    We have used the VLA to search for gaseous remnants of the galaxy formation process around six extremely isolated galaxies. We found two distinct HI clouds around each of two galaxies in our sample (UGC 9762 & UGC 11124). These clouds are rotating and appear to have optical counterparts, strongly implying that they are typical dwarf galaxies. The companions are currently weakly interacting with the primary galaxy, but have short dynamical friction timescales (~1 Gyr) suggesting that these triple galaxy systems will shortly collapse into one massive galaxy. Given that the companions are consistent with being in circular rotation about the primary galaxy, and that they have small relative masses, the resulting merger will be a minor one. The companions do, however, contain enough gas that the merger will represent a significant infusion of fuel to drive future star formation, bar formation, or central activity, while building up the mass of the disk thus making these systems important pieces of the galaxy formation and evolution process.Comment: Corrected dynamical friction calculation error. Revised discussion & conclusions. 7 pages, 4 tables, 6 figures, to appear in May 1999 Astronomical Journa

    Simulations of galaxy formation in a Λ cold dark matter universe : I : dynamical and photometric properties of a simulated disk galaxy.

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    We present a detailed analysis of the dynamical and photometric properties of a disk galaxy simulated in the cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony. The galaxy is assembled through a number of high-redshift mergers followed by a period of quiescent accretion after z1 that lead to the formation of two distinct dynamical components: a spheroid of mostly old stars and a rotationally supported disk of younger stars. The surface brightness profile is very well approximated by the superposition of an R1/4 spheroid and an exponential disk. Each photometric component contributes a similar fraction of the total luminosity of the system, although less than a quarter of the stars form after the last merger episode at z1. In the optical bands the surface brightness profile is remarkably similar to that of Sab galaxy UGC 615, but the simulated galaxy rotates significantly faster and has a declining rotation curve dominated by the spheroid near the center. The decline in circular velocity is at odds with observation and results from the high concentration of the dark matter and baryonic components, as well as from the relatively high mass-to-light ratio of the stars in the simulation. The simulated galaxy lies 1 mag off the I-band Tully-Fisher relation of late-type spirals but seems to be in reasonable agreement with Tully-Fisher data on S0 galaxies. In agreement with previous simulation work, the angular momentum of the luminous component is an order of magnitude lower than that of late-type spirals of similar rotation speed. This again reflects the dominance of the slowly rotating, dense spheroidal component, to which most discrepancies with observation may be traced. On its own, the disk component has properties rather similar to those of late-type spirals: its luminosity, its exponential scale length, and its colors are all comparable to those of galaxy disks of similar rotation speed. This suggests that a different form of feedback than adopted here is required to inhibit the efficient collapse and cooling of gas at high redshift that leads to the formation of the spheroid. Reconciling, without fine-tuning, the properties of disk galaxies with the early collapse and high merging rates characteristic of hierarchical scenarios such as CDM remains a challenging, yet so far elusive, proposition

    The cosmological origin of the Tully-Fisher relation

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    We use high-resolution cosmological simulations that include the effects of gasdynamics and star formation to investigate the origin of the Tully-Fisher relation in the standard Cold Dark Matter cosmogony. Luminosities are computed for each model galaxy using their full star formation histories and the latest spectrophotometric models. We find that at z=0 the stellar mass of model galaxies is proportional to the total baryonic mass within the virial radius of their surrounding halos. Circular velocity then correlates tightly with the total luminosity of the galaxy, reflecting the equivalence between mass and circular velocity of systems identified in a cosmological context. The slope of the relation steepens slightly from the red to the blue bandpasses, and is in fairly good agreement with observations. Its scatter is small, decreasing from \~0.45 mag in the U-band to ~0.34 mag in the K-band. The particular cosmological model we explore here seems unable to account for the zero-point of the correlation. Model galaxies are too faint at z=0 (by about two magnitudes) if the circular velocity at the edge of the luminous galaxy is used as an estimator of the rotation speed. The Tully-Fisher relation is brighter in the past, by about ~0.7 magnitudes in the B-band at z=1, at odds with recent observations of z~1 galaxies. We conclude that the slope and tightness of the Tully-Fisher relation can be naturally explained in hierarchical models but that its normalization and evolution depend strongly on the star formation algorithm chosen and on the cosmological parameters that determine the universal baryon fraction and the time of assembly of galaxies of different mass.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures included, submitted to ApJ (Letters

    Dark-Halo Cusp: Asymptotic Convergence

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    We propose a model for how the buildup of dark halos by merging satellites produces a characteristic inner cusp, of a density profile \rho \prop r^-a with a -> a_as > 1, as seen in cosmological N-body simulations of hierarchical clustering scenarios. Dekel, Devor & Hetzroni (2003) argue that a flat core of a<1 exerts tidal compression which prevents local deposit of satellite material; the satellite sinks intact into the halo center thus causing a rapid steepening to a>1. Using merger N-body simulations, we learn that this cusp is stable under a sequence of mergers, and derive a practical tidal mass-transfer recipe in regions where the local slope of the halo profile is a>1. According to this recipe, the ratio of mean densities of halo and initial satellite within the tidal radius equals a given function psi(a), which is significantly smaller than unity (compared to being 1 according to crude resonance criteria) and is a decreasing function of a. This decrease makes the tidal mass transfer relatively more efficient at larger a, which means steepening when a is small and flattening when a is large, thus causing converges to a stable solution. Given this mass-transfer recipe, linear perturbation analysis, supported by toy simulations, shows that a sequence of cosmological mergers with homologous satellites slowly leads to a fixed-point cusp with an asymptotic slope a_as>1. The slope depends only weakly on the fluctuation power spectrum, in agreement with cosmological simulations. During a long interim period the profile has an NFW-like shape, with a cusp of 1<a<a_as. Thus, a cusp is enforced if enough compact satellite remnants make it intact into the inner halo. In order to maintain a flat core, satellites must be disrupted outside the core, possibly as a result of a modest puffing up due to baryonic feedback.Comment: 37 pages, Latex, aastex.cls, revised, ApJ, 588, in pres
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