11 research outputs found

    Father-offspring behaviours.

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    <p>Frequency of problem and non-problem offspring grouped by behaviour type of their father.</p

    Nature vs. Nurture: Evidence for Social Learning of Conflict Behaviour in Grizzly Bears

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    <div><p>The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011–2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets. We genotyped 213 unique grizzly bears (118 M, 95 F) at 24 microsatellite loci, plus the amelogenin marker for sex. We used the program COLONY to assign parentage. We evaluated 76 mother-offspring relationships and 119 father-offspring relationships. We compared the frequency of problem and non-problem offspring from problem and non-problem parents, excluding dependent offspring from our analysis. Our results support the social learning hypothesis, but not the genetic inheritance hypothesis. Offspring of problem mothers are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviours, while offspring from non-problem mothers are not likely to be involved in incidents or human-bear conflicts themselves (Barnard’s test, <i>p</i> = 0.05, 62.5% of offspring from problem mothers were problem bears). There was no evidence that offspring are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviour if their fathers had been problem bears (Barnard’s test, <i>p</i> = 0.92, 29.6% of offspring from problem fathers were problem bears). For the mother-offspring relationships evaluated, 30.3% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their mother’s conflict status. Similarly, 28.6% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their father’s conflict status. Proactive mitigation to prevent female bears from becoming problem individuals likely will help prevent the perpetuation of conflicts through social learning.</p></div

    Study Area.

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    <p>Map of the study area (BMA 6) and incident hair samples in southwestern Alberta. An incident is defined to be an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets.</p

    Values of coefficients <i>a</i> and <i>b</i> of the Eq. (), the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (<i>Q</i><sub>10</sub>) and their one-way ANOVA test among different vegetation patches during the growing season in a estuary wetland.

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    <p><i>a</i>, <i>b</i> are coefficients of the Eq. (), <i>Q</i><sub>10</sub> is the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (), <i>r</i><sup>2</sup> is the determinant coefficient. n is the number of samples data. Numbers in brackets represent the standard error of the mean. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare <i>a</i>, <i>b</i>, and <i>Q</i><sub>10</sub> values among different vegetation patches (n = 3). Different letters indicate significant difference (<i>P</i><0.05) among different vegetation patches.</p

    Relationships between average monthly soil respiration and environmental factors among sites.

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    <p>Shoot biomass (A), root biomass (B), litter biomass (C), SOC (D), total C (E), and total N (F) of three adjacent vegetation types (<i>Phragmites australis</i>, <i>Suaeda salsa</i> and bare soil sites). Bars represent standard errors of the means. One point represents the average soil respiration and average environmental factors of each patch during one month of measurement. Closed circles (•) represent <i>Phragmites australis</i> community, open circles (○) represent <i>Suaeda salsa</i> community, and closed triangles (▴) represent bare soil site.</p

    Spatial distribution patterns of wetland vegetation at different spatial scales in the Yellow River Estuary.

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    <p>(A), At the landscape and regional scale (from several kilometers to tens of kilometers), various vegetation types develop and wriggle upwards along with the river pathway from the sea to the land (Modified from Fang <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091182#pone.0091182-Fang1" target="_blank">[33]</a>); (B), At the field scale (from several meters to tens of meters), the spatial distribution patterns of vegetation are mostly identified as patches of <i>Phragmites australis</i>, <i>Suaeda salsa</i> or bare soil in many sites.</p

    Temporal patterns of soil respiration and environmental factors among sites.

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    <p>(A), daily means of net radiation and soil temperature (Tsoil) at 10 cm depth; (B), daily means of soil water content (SWC) at 10 cm and 20 cm depth and precipitation; (C), averaged shoot and root biomass of <i>Phragmites australis</i> and <i>Suaeda salsa</i>; (D), daily means of soil respiration (SR). Error bars represent ± SE.</p
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