82 research outputs found

    Interactions of vortices with rarefaction solitary waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate and their role in the decay of superfluid turbulence

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    There are several ways to create the vorticity-free solitary waves -- rarefaction pulses -- in condensates: by the process of strongly nonequilibrium condensate formation in a weakly interacting Bose gas, by creating local depletion of the condensate density by a laser beam, and by moving a small object with supercritical velocities. Perturbations created by such waves colliding with vortices are studied in the context of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. We find that the effect of the interactions consists of two competing mechanisms: the creation of vortex line as rarefaction waves acquire circulation in a vicinity of a vortex core and the loss of the vortex line to sound due to Kelvin waves that are generated on vortex lines by rarefaction pulses. When a vortex ring collides with a rarefaction wave, the ring either stabilises to a smaller ring after emitting sound through Kelvin wave radiation or the entire energy of the vortex ring is lost to sound if the radius of the ring is of the order of the healing length. We show that during the time evolution of a tangle of vortices, the interactions with rarefaction pulses provide an important dissipation mechanism enhancing the decay of superfluid turbulence.Comment: Revised paper accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Vortex Splitting in Subcritical Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

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    Vortices and axisymmetric vortex rings are considered in the framework of the subcritical nonlinear Schrodinger equations. The higher order nonlinearity present in such systems models many-body interactions in superfluid systems and allows one to study the effects of negative pressure on vortex dynamics. We find the critical pressure for which the straight-line vortex becomes unstable to radial expansion of the core. The energy of the straight-line vortices and energy, impulse and velocity of vortex rings are calculated. The effect of a varying pressure on the vortex core is studied. It is shown that under the action of the periodically varying pressure field a vortex ring may split into many vortex rings and the conditions for which this happens are elucidated. These processes are also relevant to experiments in Bose-Einstein condensates where the strength and the sign of two-body interactions can be changed via Feshbach resonance.Comment: Invited submission to the special issue on Vortex Rings, Journal of Fluid Dynamics Researc

    Motion in a Bose condensate: IX. Crow instability of antiparallel vortex pairs

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    The Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation admits a two-dimensional solitary wave solution representing two mutually self-propelled, anti-parallel straight line vortices. The complete sequence of such solitary wave solutions has been computed by Jones and Roberts (J. Phys. A, 15, 2599, 1982). These solutions are unstable with respect to three-dimensional perturbations (the Crow instability). The most unstable mode has a wavelength along the direction of the vortices of the same order as their separation. The growth rate associated with this mode is evaluated here, and it is found to increase very rapidly with decreasing separation. It is shown, through numerical integrations of the GP equation that, as the perturbations grow to finite amplitude, the lines reconnect to produce a sequence of almost circular vortex rings.Comment: Submitted to J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.; Corrected reference
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