621 research outputs found

### Fragmentation functions using e+e- data from PETRA and LEP

We investigate fragmentation of charged particles in e+e- annihilation at 22,
35 and 44 GeV in terms of their polar angle and momentum distributions. From
the angular distribution the ratio of longitudinal to total hadronic
cross-section was determined at an average energy scale of 36.6 GeV to be
$\sigma_L / \sigma_{tot} = 0.076 \pm 0.013$. At next-to-leading order this
yields $\alpha_S (36.6 GeV) = 0.150 \pm 0.025$. The $\xi = \ln (1/x)$
distributions were used in conjunction with OPAL data from 91-208 GeV to study
the scale dependence of the maximum position, $\xi_0$. We studied flavour
dependence of $\xi_0$ as a possible explanation of this problem, using direct
flavour dependent measurements of $\xi_0$ at 91 GeV by OPAL.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures. Talk given by M. Blumenstengel at QCD 02,
Montpellier, France, July 200

### Vergleichende Untersuchungen über den Einfluß des hydrostatischen Druckes auf Überlebensfähigkeit und Stoffwechselintensität mariner Evertebraten und Teleosteer

1. In experiments of one hour's duration the pressure resistance of marine invertebrates and fish was examined by determining the number of surviving specimens. The results (LD50-data) show great (probably specific) differences in resistance to pressure. Young Pleuronectes platessa and Platichthys flesus, Neomysis vulgaris and decapod crustaceans (Eupagurus bernhardus, Crangon crangon, Carcinus maenas) are relatively sensible to pressure. The highest levels of pressure resistance can be observed on echinoderms (Asterias rubens, Psammechinus miliaris), molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Modiolus modiolus, Mya arenaria, Cyprina islanica, Littorina littorea), Jaera albifrons and Nereis diversicolor.
2. Gammarus oceanicus, G. duebeni and Crangon crangon are more sensible to pressure at 15° and 20° C than at 5° C.
3. The resistance to pressure of G. oceanicus becomes greater with increase of salinity as well as of osmotic concentration in the external medium.
4. The pressure resistance of G. oceanicus changes with the seasons, being obviously influenced by the stage of maturity of the gonades and the size of the animals. Crangon crangon is more sensitive to pressure at higher temperatures in summer than at lower ones in winter.
5. Asterias rubens and Littorina littorea decrease in weight at increasing sublethal pressures.
6. The frequency of cardiac beat of G. oceanicus, G. duebeni and young Zoarces viviparus was studied under pressure. Relatively little increase of pressure temporarily stimulates the heart-beat, whereas a decrease of pressure stops the beat or can slow it down for a short time. The heart-beat of Gammarus is accelerated after decompression. These effects of pressure also depend on the temperature.
7. Under pressure in short- and long-termed experiments the O2-consumption of diverse species wasmeasured in steadily running sea-water. Increasing pressure by steps (100-300 atm) Asterias rubens, Henricia sanguinolenta, Ophiura texturata and Psammechinus miliaris react every time with initial "shock-like" reduction of O2-consumption. At 100-200 atm Carcinus maenas, Hyas araneus, Nereis diversicolor and Platichthys flesus initially accelerate their metabolism. Constant pressures of 200 and 300 atm lower the O2-consumption below the normal rates.
8. The slight changes in metabolism of some eurybathic echinoderms under a step by step increase of pressure (100-300 atm) and a gradual recovery of O2-consumption during long-termed exposure to pressure may be looked upon as an adaptation to pressure

### Measurement of the longitudinal and transverse cross-section in e^+e^- annihilation at sqrt(s)=35-44 GeV

An investigation of the polar angle distribution of charged hadrons is
presented using data taken by the JADE experiment at the PETRA e^+e^- collider
at centre-of-mass energies of 35 and 44 GeV. From fits to the polar angle
distribution the longitudinal, sigma_L, and transverse, sigma_T, cross-section
relative to the total hadronic are determined at an average energy scale of
36.6 GeV. The results are sigma_L/sigma_tot = 0.067 +/- 0.013,
sigma_T/sigma_tot = 0.933 -/+ 0.013 where total errors are given and the
results are exactly anti-correlated. Using the next-to-leading order QCD
prediction for the longitudinal cross-section, the value alpha_S(36.6 GeV) =
0.150 +/- 0.025 of the strong coupling constant is obtained in agreement with
the world average value of alpha_S evolved to an energy scale of 36.6 GeV.Comment: 12 pages, LaTeX2e, 5 .eps-files included, pennames.sty included,
submitted to Phys. Lett.

### Production of J/psi Mesons at HERA

Inelastic and diffractive production of J/psi mesons at HERA is reviewed. The
data on inelastic photoproduction are described well within errors by the
Colour Singlet Model in next-to-leading order. A search for colour octet
processes predicted within the NRQCD/factorisation approach is conducted in
many regions of phase space. No unambiguous evidence has been found to date.
Diffractive elastic production of J/psi mesons has been measured in the limit
of photoproduction up to the highest photon proton center of mass energies. The
increase of the cross section is described by pQCD models. At larger Q^2, the W
dependence is found to be similar to that observed in photoproduction. First
analyses of data at high t yield a powerlike dependence on |t|. A LO BFKL
calculation gives a good description of the data.Comment: 14 pages, 12 figures, contribution to Ringberg 200

### J/psi Inclusive Production in ep Deep-Inelastic Scattering at DESY HERA

We calculate the cross section of J/psi plus jet associated production in ep
deep-inelastic scattering within the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic
quantum chromodynamics. Our analytic results disagree with previous analyses,
both for the colour-singlet and colour-octet channels. Our theoretical
predictions agree reasonably well with recent data taken by the H1
Collaboration at DESY HERA, significantly better than those obtained within the
colour-singlet model.Comment: 27 pages (Latex), 9 figures (Postscript), to appear in Nucl. Phys.

### Measurement of the strong coupling alpha_S from the three-jet rate in e+e- - annihilation using JADE data

We present a measurement of the strong coupling alpha_S using the three-jet
rate measured with the Durham algorithm in e+e- -annihilation using data of the
JADE experiment at centre-of-mass energies between 14 and 44 GeV. Recent
theoretical improvements provide predictions of the three-jet rate in e+e-
-annihilation at next-to-next-to-leading order. In this paper a measurement of
the three-jet rate is used to determine the strong coupling alpha_s from a
comparison to next-to-next-to-leading order predictions matched with
next-to-leading logarithmic approximations and yields a value for the strong
coupling alpha_S(MZ) = 0.1199+- 0.0010 (stat.) +- 0.0021 (exp.) +- 0.0054
(had.) +- 0.0007 (theo.) consistent with the world average.Comment: 27 pages, 8 figure

### Determination of the Strong Coupling \boldmath{\as} from hadronic Event Shapes and NNLO QCD predictions using JADE Data

Event Shape Data from $e^+e^-$ annihilation into hadrons collected by the
JADE experiment at centre-of-mass energies between 14 GeV and 44 GeV are used
to determine the strong coupling $\alpha_S$. QCD predictions complete to
next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO), alternatively combined with resummed
next-to-leading-log-approximation (NNLO+NLLA) calculations, are used. The
combined value from six different event shape observables at the six JADE
centre-of-mass energies using the NNLO calculations is
$\alpha_S(M_Z)$= 0.1210 +/- 0.0007(stat.) +/- 0.0021(expt.) +/- 0.0044(had.)
+/- 0.0036(theo.) and with the NNLO+NLLA calculations the combined value is
$\alpha_S$= 0.1172 +/- 0.0006(stat.) +/- 0.0020(expt.) +/- 0.0035(had.) +/-
0.0030(theo.) . The stability of the NNLO and NNLO+NLLA results with respect to
missing higher order contributions, studied by variations of the
renormalisation scale, is improved compared to previous results obtained with
NLO+NLLA or with NLO predictions only. The observed energy dependence of
$\alpha_S$ agrees with the QCD prediction of asymptotic freedom and excludes
absence of running with 99% confidence level.Comment: 9 pages, EPHJA style, 4 figures, corresponds to published version
with JADE author lis

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