253 research outputs found

### High resolution spectroscopy for Cepheids distance determination. V. Impact of the cross-correlation method on the p-factor and the gamma-velocities

The cross correlation method (hereafter CC) is widely used to derive the
radial velocity curve of Cepheids when the signal to noise of the spectra is
low. However, if it is used with the wrong projection factor, it might
introduce some biases in the Baade-Wesselink (hereafter BW) methods of
determining the distance of Cepheids. In addition, it might affect the average
value of the radial velocity curve (or gamma-velocity) important for Galactic
structure studies. We aim to derive a period-projection factor relation
(hereafter Pp) appropriate to be used together with the CC method. Moreover, we
investigate whether the CC method can explain the misunderstood previous
calculation of the K-term of Cepheids. We observed eight galactic Cepheids with
the HARPS spectrograph. For each star, we derive an interpolated CC radial
velocity curve using the HARPS pipeline. The amplitudes of these curves are
used to determine the correction to be applied to the semi-theoretical
projection factor derived in Nardetto et al. (2007). Their average value (or
gamma-velocity) are also compared to the center-of-mass velocities derived in
Nardetto et al. (2008). The correction in amplitudes allows us to derive a new
Pp relation: p = [-0.08+-0.05] log P +[1.31+-0.06]. We also find a negligible
wavelength dependence (over the optical range) of the Pp relation. We finally
show that the gamma-velocity derived from the CC method is systematically
blue-shifted by about 1.0 +- 0.2km/s compared to the center-of-mass velocity of
the star. An additional blue-shift of 1.0km/s is thus needed to totally explain
the previous calculation of the K-term of Cepheids (around 2km/s). The new Pp
relation we derived is a solid tool for the distance scale calibration
(abridged).Comment: Comments : 9 pages, 3 Postscript figures, 5 Tables, accepted for
publication in A&

### Calibrating the projection factor for Galactic Cepheids

The projection factor (p), which converts the radial velocity to pulsational
velocity, is an important parameter in the Baade-Wesselink (BW) type analysis
and distance scale work. The p-factor is either adopted as a constant or
linearly depending on the logarithmic of pulsating periods. The aim of this
work is to calibrate the p-factor if a Cepheid has both the BW distance and an
independent distance measurement, and examine the p-factor for delta Cephei --
the prototype of classical Cepheids. We calibrated the p-factor for several
Galactic Cepheids that have both the latest BW distances and independent
distances either from Hipparcos parallaxes or main-sequence fitting distances
to Cepheid-hosted stellar clusters. Based on 25 Cepheids, the calibrated
p-factor relation is consistent with latest p-factor relation in literature.
The calibrated p-factor relation also indicates that this relation may not be
linear and may exhibit an intrinsic scatter. We also examined the discrepancy
of empirical p-factors for delta Cephei, and found that the reasons for this
discrepancy include the disagreement of angular diameters, the treatment of
radial velocity data, and the phase interval adopted during the fitting
procedure. Finally, we investigated the impact of the input p-factor in two BW
methodologies for delta Cephei, and found that different p-factors can be
adopted in these BW methodologies and yet result in the same angular diameters.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures and 2 tables. A&A accepte

### The Baade-Wesselink p-factor applicable to LMC Cepheids

Context. Recent observations of LMC Cepheids bring new constraints on the
slope of the period-projection factor relation (hereafter Pp relation) that is
currently used in the Baade-Wesselink (hereafter BW) method of distance
determination. The discrepancy between observations and theoretical analysis is
particularly significant for short period Cepheids Aims. We investigate three
physical effects that might possibly explain this discrepancy: (1) the
spectroscopic S/N that is systematically lower for LMC Cepheids (around 10)
compared to Galactic ones (up to 300), (2) the impact of the metallicity on the
dynamical structure of LMC Cepheids, and (3) the combination of infrared
photometry/interferometry with optical spectroscopy. Methods. To study the S/N
we use a very simple toy model of Cepheids. The impact of metallicity on the
projection factor is based on the hydrodynamical model of delta Cep already
described in previous studies. This model is also used to derive the position
of the optical versus infrared photospheric layers. Results. We find no
significant effect of S/N, metallicity, and optical-versus-infrared
observations on the Pp relation. Conclusions. The Pp relation of Cepheids in
the LMC does not differ from the Galactic relation. This allows its universal
application to determine distances to extragalactic Cepheids via BW analysis.Comment: accepted in A&A LETTER

### Line-profile variations in radial-velocity measurements: Two alternative indicators for planetary searches

Aims. We introduce two methods to identify false-positive planetary signals
in the context of radial-velocity exoplanet searches. The first is the
bi-Gaussian cross-correlation function fitting, and the second is the
measurement of asymmetry in radial-velocity spectral line information content,
Vasy.
Methods. We make a systematic analysis of the most used common line profile
diagnosis, Bisector Inverse Slope and Velocity Span, along with the two
proposed ones. We evaluate all these diagnosis methods following a set of
well-defined common criteria and using both simulated and real data. We apply
them to simulated cross-correlation functions created with the program SOAP and
which are affected by the presence of stellar spots, and to real
cross-correlation functions, calculated from HARPS spectra, for stars with a
signal originating both in activity and created by a planet.
Results. We demonstrate that the bi-Gaussian method allows a more precise
characterization of the deformation of line profiles than the standard bisector
inverse slope. The calculation of the deformation indicator is simpler and its
interpretation more straightforward. More importantly, its amplitude can be up
to 30% larger than that of the bisector span, allowing the detection of
smaller-amplitude correlations with radial-velocity variations. However, a
particular parametrization of the bisector inverse slope is shown to be more
efficient on high-signal-to-noise data than both the standard bisector and the
bi-Gaussian. The results of the Vasy method show that this indicator is more
effective than any of the previous ones, being correlated with the
radial-velocity with more significance for signals resulting from a line
deformation. Moreover, it provides a qualitative advantage over the bisector,
showing significant correlations with RV for active stars for which bisector
analysis is inconclusive. (abridged)Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and
Astrophysics, comments welcom

### High resolution spectroscopy for Cepheids distance determination. II. A period- projection factor relation

The projection factor is a key quantity for the interferometric
Baade-Wesselink (hereafter IBW) and surface-brightness (hereafter SB) methods
of determining the distance of Cepheids. Indeed, it allows a consistent
combination of angular and linear diameters of the star. We aim to determine
consistent projection factors that include the dynamical structure of the
Cepheids' atmosphere. Methods. Hydrodynamical models of delta Cep and l Car
have been used to validate a spectroscopic method of determining the projection
factor. This method, based on the amplitude of the radial velocity curve, is
applied to eight stars observed with the HARPS spectrometer. The projection
factor is divided into three sub-concepts : (1) a geometrical effect, (2) the
velocity gradient within the atmosphere, and (3) the relative motion of the
"optical" pulsating photosphere compared to the corresponding mass elements
(hereafter fo-g). Both, (1) and (3) are deduced from geometrical and
hydrodynamical models, respectively, while (2) is derived directly from
observations. The Fe I 4896.439 A line is found to be the best one to use in
the context of IBW and SB methods. A coherent and consistent period-projection
factor relation (hereafter Pp relation) is derived for this specific spectral
line: p = [0.064 +- 0.020] log P + [1.376 +- 0.023]. This procedure is then
extended to derive dynamic projection factors for any spectral line of any
Cepheid. This Pp relation is an important tool for removing bias in the
calibration of the period-luminosity relation of Cepheids. Moreover, it reveals
a new physical quantity fo-g to investigate in the near future

### Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry - I. VINCI/VLTI observations of seven Galactic Cepheids

We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids (X
Sgr, eta Aql, W Sgr, zeta Gem, beta Dor, Y Oph and L Car) that we have obtained
with the VINCI instrument, installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer (VLTI). We
also present reprocessed archive data obtained with the FLUOR/IOTA instrument
on zeta Gem, in order to improve the phase coverage of our observations. We
obtain average limb darkened angular diameter values of LD(X Sgr) = 1.471 +/-
0.033 mas, LD(eta Aql) = 1.839 +/- 0.028 mas, LD(W Sgr) = 1.312 +/- 0.029 mas,
LD(beta Dor) = 1.891 +/- 0.024 mas, LD(zeta Gem) =1.747 +/- 0.061 mas, LD(Y
Oph) = 1.437 +/- 0.040 mas and LD(L Car) = 2.988 +/- 0.012 mas. For four of
these stars (eta Aql, W Sgr, beta Dor, and L Car) we detect the pulsational
variation of their angular diameter. This enables us to compute directly their
distances, using a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink method: d(eta Aql) =
276 [+55 -38] pc, d(W Sgr) = 379 [+216 -130] pc, d(beta Dor) = 345 [+175 -80]
pc, d(L Car) = 603 [+24 -19] pc. The stated error bars are statistical in
nature. Applying a hybrid method, that makes use of the Gieren et al. (1998)
Period-Radius relation to estimate the linear diameters, we obtain the
following distances (statistical and systematic error bars are mentioned): d(X
Sgr) = 324 +/- 7 +/- 17 pc, d(eta Aql) = 264 +/- 4 +/- 14 pc, d(W Sgr) = 386
+/- 9 +/- 21 pc, d(beta Dor) = 326 +/- 4 +/- 19 pc, d(zeta Gem) = 360 +/- 13
+/- 22 pc, d(Y Oph) = 648 +/- 17 +/- 47 pc and d(L Car) = 542 +/- 2 +/- 49 pc.Comment: 16 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy &
Astrophysic

### Understanding the dynamical structure of pulsating stars. HARPS spectroscopy of the delta Scuti stars rho Pup and DX Cet

High-resolution spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study the dynamical
structure of pulsating stars atmosphere. We aim at comparing the line asymmetry
and velocity of the two delta Sct stars rho Pup and DX Cet with previous
spectroscopic data obtained on classical Cepheids and beta Cep stars. We
obtained, analysed and discuss HARPS high-resolution spectra of rho Pup and DX
Cet. We derived the same physical quantities as used in previous studies, which
are the first-moment radial velocities and the bi-Gaussian spectral line
asymmetries. The identification of f=7.098 (1/d) as a fundamental radial mode
and the very accurate Hipparcos parallax promote rho Pup as the best standard
candle to test the period-luminosity relations of delta Sct stars. The action
of small-amplitude nonradial modes can be seen as well-defined cycle-to-cycle
variations in the radial velocity measurements of rho Pup. Using the
spectral-line asymmetry method, we also found the centre-of-mass velocities of
rho Pup and DX Cet, V_gamma = 47.49 +/- 0.07 km/s and V_gamma = 25.75 +/- 0.06
km/s, respectively. By comparing our results with previous HARPS observations
of classical Cepheids and beta Cep stars, we confirm the linear relation
between the atmospheric velocity gradient and the amplitude of the radial
velocity curve, but only for amplitudes larger than 22.5 km/s. For lower values
of the velocity amplitude (i.e., < 22.5 km/s), our data on rho Pup seem to
indicate that the velocity gradient is null, but this result needs to be
confirmed with additional data. We derived the Baade-Wesselink projection
factor p = 1.36 +/- 0.02 for rho Pup and p = 1.39 +/- 0.02 for DX Cet. We
successfully extended the period-projection factor relation from classical
Cepheids to delta Scuti stars.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A (in press

### Cepheid limb darkening, angular diameter corrections, and projection factor from static spherical model stellar atmospheres

Context. One challenge for measuring the Hubble constant using Classical
Cepheids is the calibration of the Leavitt Law or period-luminosity
relationship. The Baade-Wesselink method for distance determination to Cepheids
relies on the ratio of the measured radial velocity and pulsation velocity, the
so-called projection factor and the ability to measure the stellar angular
diameters. Aims. We use spherically-symmetric model stellar atmospheres to
explore the dependence of the p-factor and angular diameter corrections as a
function of pulsation period. Methods. Intensity profiles are computed from a
grid of plane-parallel and spherically-symmetric model stellar atmospheres
using the SAtlas code. Projection factors and angular diameter corrections are
determined from these intensity profiles and compared to previous results.
Results. Our predicted geometric period-projection factor relation including
previously published state-of-the-art hydrodynamical predictions is not with
recent observational constraints. We suggest a number of potential resolutions
to this discrepancy. The model atmosphere geometry also affects predictions for
angular diameter corrections used to interpret interferometric observations,
suggesting corrections used in the past underestimated Cepheid angular
diameters by 3 - 5%. Conclusions. While spherically-symmetric hydrostatic model
atmospheres cannot resolve differences between projection factors from theory
and observations, they do help constrain underlying physics that must be
included, including chromospheres and mass loss. The models also predict more
physically-based limb-darkening corrections for interferometric observations.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in A&

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