78 research outputs found

    Integration of antennas with sun-tracking solar panels

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    A low-cost solution for antennas integrated into solar cells, allowing their implementation in solar tracking installations is proposed. The proposed passive device autonomously adjusts the phase shift of a two-element array proportional to the panel rotation. Consequently, the main beam is steered to compensate for panel rotation and maintain a radio link. The proposed device operates for a rotation of ±45° with an amplitude variation of ≤0.4 dB at 2.51 GHz

    Advanced Circularly Polarised Microstrip Patch Antennas

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    The thesis describes outcomes of research on advanced circularly polarised antennas. The proposed designs are intended for integration into small mobile devices, therefore low profile and easy manufacturability are key parameters, along with good CP radiation properties. The designs were validated by simulation and measurement, and are also backed by theory and design guidelines. The primary focus is on the development of planar omnidirectional circularly polarised antennas, which are fabricated using multilayer PCB techniques and thus are lightweight and cost-efficient. Unlike in classical microstrip patch antenna designs, the groundplane of the proposed antenna was substantially reduced. This helps to achieve an omnidirectional circular polarisation pattern and miniaturize the antenna, however at the cost of increased feed circuit complexity. The basic design, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed in Section 3. In the next step, the omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna was extended with additional, advanced features. A miniaturized version is investigated, which offers a 20% footprint reduction by folding parts of the patch underneath itself. Further miniaturization is possible by increasing the dielectric constant of the substrate. A method to adjust the omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna performance by trimming four lumped capacitors is also investigated. Manufacturing inaccuracy in large scale production may cause some of the units to radiate outside of the desired frequencies. By integrating four trimmed capacitors into the antenna it can be precisely tuned to the desired band. Simulated results demonstrate this property by trimming the antenna between GPS L1 band (centre frequency at 1.575 GHz) and Galileo/Beidou-2 E2 band (1.561 GHz). Furthermore, a dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna is presented, which employs slots and capacitor loading to steer the current path of the first and second resonant mode. The design offers a small frequency ratio of 1.182. The methods to obtain a planar omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna have been further advanced to propose a reconfigurable antenna. The beam reconfiguration is capable of rotating it dipole-like radiation pattern around an axis, thus allowing reception or transmission from any spherical angle. The switching method is simple and does not require any semiconductor devices. Finally, a dual circularly polarised antenna is presented, which achieves dual-polarisation by employing even and odd modes in a coplanar waveguide. This technique allows greater flexibility and size reduction of the feed network, as two signals can be transmitted by a single multi-mode transmission line. Simulated results demonstrate this property by trimming the antenna between GPS L1 band (centre frequency at 1.575 GHz) and Galileo/Beidou-2 E2 band (1.561 GHz). Furthermore, a dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna is presented, which employs slots and capacitor loading to steer the current path of the first and second resonant mode. The design offers a small frequency ratio of 1.182. The methods to obtain a planar omnidirectional circularly polarised antenna have been further advanced to propose a reconfigurable antenna. The beam reconfiguration is capable of rotating it dipole-like radiation pattern around an axis, thus allowing reception or transmission from any spherical angle. The switching method is simple and does not require any semiconductor devices. Finally, a dual circularly polarised antenna is presented, which achieves dual-polarisation by employing even and odd modes in a coplanar waveguide. This technique allows greater flexibility and size reduction of the feed network, as two signals can be transmitted by a single multi-mode transmission line

    Low-cost Multimode Patch Antenna for Dual MIMO and Enhanced Localization Use

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    This paper proposes a simple, low-cost multi-mode patch antenna combining good MIMO performance with precise Angle of Arrival (AoA) estimation. The AoA is based on the monopulse antenna concept, however, unlike in radar applications, the necessity for complex circuitry is replaced by the intrinsic properties of even and odd resonant patch modes. This capability is advantageous for future “Internet of Things” antennas, embedded into low-cost and size-constrained devices. The envelope correlation coefficient, measured in an anechoic chamber, is below 1.5 %, ensuring good MIMO performance. An exemplary addition to localization algorithm exploiting antenna properties is demonstrated

    Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antennas – a Small Antenna Perspective

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    The paper discusses recent developments and challenges in the design of small omnidirectionalcircularly-polarized (CP) antennas. Although omnidirectional CP coverage is easily achievable using antenna arrays, it is just recently that small and low-cost antennas delivered this functionality.The paper addresses practical design problems for these antennas, not reported in previous publications.This includes selection of the omnidirectional plane relative to the ground plane and measurement challenges. Future perspectives on how these antennas can provide electronically steerable beams are investigated using simulated results

    Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna with Post Manufacture Characteristic Refinement

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    We propose an omnidirectional circularly polarised planar microstrip patch antenna, in which both impedance bandwidth and circular polarization properties can be adjusted after antenna manufacture. This is done by appropriately tuning four adjustable capacitors, incorporated into the patches. To demonstrate the properties, the proposed antenna is tuned to the GPS L1 band and then re-tuned for Beidou/Galileo E2 band by only changing capacitors values. Design guidelines for such retuning are provided

    Axial ratio correction for GNSS antennas in asymetrically coupled environments

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    The paper demonstrates a technique to correct the axial ratio of dual-fed circularly-polarized antennas in the presence of strong coupling with surrounding components or asymmetrically reduced ground plane. It demonstrated - based on a standard GPS L1 patch antenna - that for certain situations a phase shift of up to 135° may be beneficial compared to the routinely used 90°, allowing for AR improvement from 7.8 dB (for 90°) to 2.1 dB (135°)

    Circularly Polarized Terminal Antennas for Emerging Wireless Systems

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    Several types of omni-directional Circularly Polarized (CP) antennas are presented, which are employed by three different types of feedlines: Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) fed, Microstrip fed, and Differential-fed, to achieve omni-directional CP performances. The Dual-frequency Omni-directional CP antenna is proposed by using slot and inductor embedded into radiated patches. These omnidirectional CP antennas have potential application on GPS, WLAN and RFID systems

    Electrically Small Multimodal 3D Beamforming MIMO Antenna for PHY-Layer Security

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    This work proposes an electrically small 3D beamforming antenna for PHYsical Layer (PHY-layer) security. The antenna comprises two layers of stacked patch structures and is a five-mode five-port MIMO system operating around 1.85 GHz with electrical size ka=0.98{ka=0.98} and radiation efficiency of up to 55%{55\%}. By studying the properties of the excited modes, phase and amplitude control allow for unidirectional beam scanning towards any direction around the elevation and azimuth planes. PHY-layer security is investigated using the directional modulation (DM) technique, which transmits unscrambled baseband constellation symbols to a pre-specified secure direction while simultaneously spatially distorting the same constellations in all other directions. Bit Error Rate (BER) calculations reveal very low values of 2×105{2\times10^{-5}} for the desired direction of the legitimate receiver, with BER<102{<10^{-2}} beamwidths of 55{55^{\circ}} and 58{58^{\circ}} for the azimuth and elevation planes, respectively.Comment: Conference pape
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