23 research outputs found

    Programming with a Differentiable Forth Interpreter

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    Given that in practice training data is scarce for all but a small set of problems, a core question is how to incorporate prior knowledge into a model. In this paper, we consider the case of prior procedural knowledge for neural networks, such as knowing how a program should traverse a sequence, but not what local actions should be performed at each step. To this end, we present an end-to-end differentiable interpreter for the programming language Forth which enables programmers to write program sketches with slots that can be filled with behaviour trained from program input-output data. We can optimise this behaviour directly through gradient descent techniques on user-specified objectives, and also integrate the program into any larger neural computation graph. We show empirically that our interpreter is able to effectively leverage different levels of prior program structure and learn complex behaviours such as sequence sorting and addition. When connected to outputs of an LSTM and trained jointly, our interpreter achieves state-of-the-art accuracy for end-to-end reasoning about quantities expressed in natural language stories.Comment: 34th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2017

    Break it Down for Me: A Study in Automated Lyric Annotation

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    Comprehending lyrics, as found in songs and poems, can pose a challenge to human and machine readers alike. This motivates the need for systems that can understand the ambiguity and jargon found in such creative texts, and provide commentary to aid readers in reaching the correct interpretation. We introduce the task of automated lyric annotation (ALA). Like text simplification, a goal of ALA is to rephrase the original text in a more easily understandable manner. However, in ALA the system must often include additional information to clarify niche terminology and abstract concepts. To stimulate research on this task, we release a large collection of crowdsourced annotations for song lyrics. We analyze the performance of translation and retrieval models on this task, measuring performance with both automated and human evaluation. We find that each model captures a unique type of information important to the task.Comment: To appear in Proceedings of EMNLP 201

    Mind the Gap Between Conversations for Improved Long-Term Dialogue Generation

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    Knowing how to end and resume conversations over time is a natural part of communication, allowing for discussions to span weeks, months, or years. The duration of gaps between conversations dictates which topics are relevant and which questions to ask, and dialogue systems which do not explicitly model time may generate responses that are unnatural. In this work we explore the idea of making dialogue models aware of time, and present GapChat, a multi-session dialogue dataset in which the time between each session varies. While the dataset is constructed in real-time, progress on events in speakers' lives is simulated in order to create realistic dialogues occurring across a long timespan. We expose time information to the model and compare different representations of time and event progress. In human evaluation we show that time-aware models perform better in metrics that judge the relevance of the chosen topics and the information gained from the conversation.Comment: Accepted in the Findings of EMNLP 202

    Ask an Expert: Leveraging Language Models to Improve Strategic Reasoning in Goal-Oriented Dialogue Models

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    Existing dialogue models may encounter scenarios which are not well-represented in the training data, and as a result generate responses that are unnatural, inappropriate, or unhelpful. We propose the "Ask an Expert" framework in which the model is trained with access to an "expert" which it can consult at each turn. Advice is solicited via a structured dialogue with the expert, and the model is optimized to selectively utilize (or ignore) it given the context and dialogue history. In this work the expert takes the form of an LLM. We evaluate this framework in a mental health support domain, where the structure of the expert conversation is outlined by pre-specified prompts which reflect a reasoning strategy taught to practitioners in the field. Blenderbot models utilizing "Ask an Expert" show quality improvements across all expert sizes, including those with fewer parameters than the dialogue model itself. Our best model provides a ‚ąľ10%\sim 10\% improvement over baselines, approaching human-level scores on "engingingness" and "helpfulness" metrics.Comment: Accepted in Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 202

    Hypothesis Only Baselines in Natural Language Inference

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    We propose a hypothesis only baseline for diagnosing Natural Language Inference (NLI). Especially when an NLI dataset assumes inference is occurring based purely on the relationship between a context and a hypothesis, it follows that assessing entailment relations while ignoring the provided context is a degenerate solution. Yet, through experiments on ten distinct NLI datasets, we find that this approach, which we refer to as a hypothesis-only model, is able to significantly outperform a majority class baseline across a number of NLI datasets. Our analysis suggests that statistical irregularities may allow a model to perform NLI in some datasets beyond what should be achievable without access to the context.Comment: Accepted at *SEM 2018 as long paper. 12 page