92 research outputs found

    Waterproofed Photomultiplier Tube Assemblies for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

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    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.Comment: 16 pages, 11 figures. Submitted to Nucl. Instr. Met

    An inclusive search for free quarks at PEP

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    Abstract We report the results of a search for fractionally charged particles in e + e − reactions at a center of mass energy of 29 GeV. We find no evidence for such particles and present upper limitts on R q = σ q q X/σ μμ for change 1 3 e and 2 3 e which range from 1 to 8 × 10 −2 for mass up to 12 GeV/ c 2

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Preeclampsia and COVID-19: results from the INTERCOVID prospective longitudinal study

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    Background: It is unclear whether the suggested link between COVID-19 during pregnancy and preeclampsia is an independent association or if these are caused by common risk factors. Objective: This study aimed to quantify any independent association between COVID-19 during pregnancy and preeclampsia and to determine the effect of these variables on maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Study Design: This was a large, longitudinal, prospective, unmatched diagnosed and not-diagnosed observational study assessing the effect of COVID-19 during pregnancy on mothers and neonates. Two consecutive not-diagnosed women were concomitantly enrolled immediately after each diagnosed woman was identified, at any stage during pregnancy or delivery, and at the same level of care to minimize bias. Women and neonates were followed until hospital discharge using the standardized INTERGROWTH-21st protocols and electronic data management system. A total of 43 institutions in 18 countries contributed to the study sample. The independent association between the 2 entities was quantified with the risk factors known to be associated with preeclampsia analyzed in each group. The outcomes were compared among women with COVID-19 alone, preeclampsia alone, both conditions, and those without either of the 2 conditions. Results: We enrolled 2184 pregnant women; of these, 725 (33.2%) were enrolled in the COVID-19 diagnosed and 1459 (66.8%) in the COVID-19 not-diagnosed groups. Of these women, 123 had preeclampsia of which 59 of 725 (8.1%) were in the COVID-19 diagnosed group and 64 of 1459 (4.4%) were in the not-diagnosed group (risk ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–2.61). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and conditions associated with both COVID-19 and preeclampsia, the risk ratio for preeclampsia remained significant among all women (risk ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.25–2.52) and nulliparous women specifically (risk ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.17–3.05). There was a trend but no statistical significance among parous women (risk ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.99–2.73). The risk ratio for preterm birth for all women diagnosed with COVID-19 and preeclampsia was 4.05 (95% confidence interval, 2.99–5.49) and 6.26 (95% confidence interval, 4.35–9.00) for nulliparous women. Compared with women with neither condition diagnosed, the composite adverse perinatal outcome showed a stepwise increase in the risk ratio for COVID-19 without preeclampsia, preeclampsia without COVID-19, and COVID-19 with preeclampsia (risk ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.63–2.86; risk ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.44–4.45; and risk ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–4.82, respectively). Similar findings were found for the composite adverse maternal outcome with risk ratios of 1.76 (95% confidence interval, 1.32–2.35), 2.07 (95% confidence interval, 1.20–3.57), and 2.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.66–4.63). The association between COVID-19 and gestational hypertension and the direction of the effects on preterm birth and adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes, were similar to preeclampsia, but confined to nulliparous women with lower risk ratios. Conclusion: COVID-19 during pregnancy is strongly associated with preeclampsia, especially among nulliparous women. This association is independent of any risk factors and preexisting conditions. COVID-19 severity does not seem to be a factor in this association. Both conditions are associated independently of and in an additive fashion with preterm birth, severe perinatal morbidity and mortality, and adverse maternal outcomes. Women with preeclampsia should be considered a particularly vulnerable group with regard to the risks posed by COVID-19

    Longitudinal study of computerised cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction.

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    OBJECTIVES: To explore if in early fetal growth restriction (FGR) the longitudinal pattern of short-term fetal heart rate (FHR) variation (STV) can be used for identifying imminent fetal distress and if abnormalities of FHR registration associate with two-year infant outcome. METHODS: The original TRUFFLE study assessed if in early FGR the use of ductus venosus Doppler pulsatility index (DVPI), in combination with a safety-net of very low STV and / or recurrent decelerations, could improve two-year infant survival without neurological impairment in comparison to computerised cardiotocography (cCTG) with STV calculation only. For this secondary analysis we selected women, who delivered before 32 weeks, and who had consecutive STV data for more than 3 days before delivery, and known infant two-year outcome data. Women who received corticosteroids within 3 days of delivery were excluded. Individual regression line algorithms of all STV values except the last one were calculated. Life table analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate the day by day risk for a low STV or very low STV and / or FHR decelerations (DVPI group safety-net) and to assess which parameters were associated to this risk. Furthermore, it was assessed if STV pattern, lowest STV value or recurrent FHR decelerations were associated with two-year infant outcome. RESULTS: One hundred and fourty-nine women matched the inclusion criteria. Using the individual STV regression lines prediction of a last STV below the cCTG-group cut-off had a sensitivity of 0.42 and specificity of 0.91. For each day after inclusion the median risk for a low STV(cCTG criteria) was 4% (Interquartile range (IQR) 2% to 7%) and for a very low STV and / or recurrent decelerations (DVPI safety-net criteria) 5% (IQR 4 to 7%). Measures of STV pattern, fetal Doppler (arterial or venous), birthweight MoM or gestational age did not improve daily risk prediction usefully. There was no association of STV regression coefficients, a last low STV or /and recurrent decelerations with short or long term infant outcomes. CONCLUSION: The TRUFFLE study showed that a strategy of DVPI monitoring with a safety-net delivery indication of very low STV and / or recurrent decelerations could increase infant survival without neurological impairment at two years. This post-hoc analysis demonstrates that in early FGR the day by day risk of an abnormal cCTG as defined by the DVPI protocol safety-net criteria is 5%, and that prediction of this is not possible. This supports the rationale for cCTG monitoring more often than daily in these high-risk fetuses. Low STV and/or recurrent decelerations were not associated with adverse infant outcome and it appears safe to delay intervention until such abnormalities occur, as long as DVPI is in the normal range

    How to monitor pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction and delivery below 32 weeks: a post-hoc sensitivity analysis of the TRUFFLE-study.

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    OBJECTIVES: In the recent TRUFFLE study it appeared that, in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) between 26 and 32 weeks, monitoring of the ductus venosus (DV) combined with computerised cardiotocography (cCTG) as a trigger for delivery, increased the chance of infant survival without neurological impairment. However, concerns in interpretation were raised as DV monitoring appeared associated with a non-significant increase in fetal death, and part of the infants were delivered after 32 weeks, after which the study protocol was no longer applied. This secondary sensitivity analysis focuses on women who delivered before 32 completed weeks, and analyses fetal death cases in detail. METHODS: We analysed the monitoring data of 317 women who delivered before 32 weeks, excluding women with absent infant outcome data or inevitable perinatal death. The association of the last monitoring data before delivery and infant outcome was assessed by multivariable analysis. RESULTS: The primary outcome (two year survival without neurological impairment) occurred more often in the two DV groups (both 83%) than in the CTG-STV group (77%), however the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.21). Nevertheless, in surviving infants 93% was free of neurological impairment in the DV groups versus 85% in the CTG-STV group (p = 0.049). All fetal deaths (n = 7) occurred in women allocated to DV monitoring, which explains this difference. Assessment of the monitoring parameters that were obtained shortly before fetal death in these 7 cases showed an abnormal CTG in only one. Multivariable regression analysis of factors at study entry demonstrated that higher gestational age, larger estimated fetal weight 50th percentile ratio and lower U/C ratio were significantly associated with the (normal) primary outcome. Allocation to the DV groups had a smaller effect, but remained in the model (p < 0.1). Assessment of the last monitoring data before delivery showed that in the CTG-STV group abnormal fetal arterial Doppler was significantly associated with adverse outcome. In contrast, in the DV groups an abnormal DV was the only fetal monitoring parameter that was associated with adverse infant outcome, while fetal arterial Doppler, STV below CTG-group cut-off or recurrent fetal heart rate decelerations were not. CONCLUSIONS: In accordance with the results of the overall TRUFFLE study of the monitoring-intervention management of very early severe FGR we found that the difference in the proportion of infants surviving without neuroimpairment (the primary endpoint) was non-significant when comparing timing of delivery with or without changes in the DV waveform. However, the uneven distribution of fetal deaths towards the DV groups was likely by chance, and among surviving children neurological outcomes were better. Before 32 weeks, delaying delivery until abnormalities in DVPI or STV and/or recurrent decelerations occur, as defined by the study protocol, is therefore probably safe and possibly benefits long-term outcome

    Genome-wide association for milk production and lactation curve parameters in Holstein dairy cows

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    The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with 305-day milk yield and lactation curve parameters on primiparous (n = 9,910) and multiparous (n = 11,158) Holstein cows. The SNP solutions were estimated using a weighted single-step genomic BLUP approach and imputed high-density panel (777k) genotypes. The proportion of genetic variance explained by windows of 50 consecutive SNP (with an average of 165 Kb) was calculated, and regions that accounted for more than 0.50% of the variance were used to search for candidate genes. Estimated heritabilities were 0.37, 0.34, 0.17, 0.12, 0.30 and 0.19, respectively, for 305-day milk yield, peak yield, peak time, ramp, scale and decay for primiparous cows. Genetic correlations of 305-day milk yield with peak yield, peak time, ramp, scale and decay in primiparous cows were 0.99, 0.63, 0.20, 0.97 and -0.52, respectively. The results identified three windows on BTA14 associated with 305-day milk yield and the parameters of lactation curve in primi- and multiparous cows. Previously proposed candidate genes for milk yield supported by this work include GRINA, CYHR1, FOXH1, TONSL, PPP1R16A, ARHGAP39, MAF1, OPLAH and MROH1, whereas newly identified candidate genes are MIR2308, ZNF7, ZNF34, SLURP1, MAFA and KIFC2 (BTA14). The protein lipidation biological process term, which plays a key role in controlling protein localization and function, was identified as the most important term enriched by the identified genes
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