44 research outputs found

    Internal Audit, Sarbanes-Oxley And Athletic Departments: An Examination And Recommendations For Reform

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    During the past fifteen to twenty years the integrity of intercollegiate athletics has been seriously questioned as a result of an increased awareness of problems associated with institutional controls over athletic departments.  Limited empirical evidence has been used in the debate regarding institutional controls pertaining to the athletic department.  This paper provides empirical evidence regarding the use of the internal audit function as an institutional control.  Our findings indicate that while the internal audits of athletic departments are adequate, the communication of these audit results is inadequate.  We also discuss the applicability of recent legislation, Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, to colleges and universities.  Recommendations to enhance institutional controls regarding intercollegiate athletics are provided.

    Winning In NCAA Womens Soccer: Does The Gender Of The Coach Matter?

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    While womens intercollegiate soccer has grown rapidly over the past three decades, men still hold nearly two-thirds of all head coaching positions in NCAA Division I womens soccer programs. This paper explores whether the gender of the head coach affects success in winning games. After considering various reasons why gender might matter, we undertake a multiple regression analysis using data from the 2001-2002 season to answer this question empirically. Controlling for other factors that would be expected to influence a teams success, including the quality of the head coach, the level of institutional support and the tradition of the program, we find that the head coachs gender, and also the head coachs age, have statistically significant effects on team success for schools in Divisions I-AA and I-AAA, but not for the major football schools in Division I-A. We close with possible explanations for these results

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Environmental effects on genetic variance are likely to constrain adaptation in novel environments

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    Adaptive plasticity allows populations to cope with environmental variation but is expected to fail as conditions become unfamiliar. In novel conditions, populations may instead rely on rapid adaptation to increase fitness and avoid extinction. Adaptation should be fastest when both plasticity and selection occur in directions of the multivariate phenotype that contain abundant genetic variation. However, tests of this prediction from field experiments are rare. Here, we quantify how additive genetic variance in a multivariate phenotype changes across an elevational gradient, and test whether plasticity and selection align with genetic variation. We do so using two closely related, but ecologically distinct, sister species of Sicilian daisy (Senecio, Asteraceae) adapted to high and low elevations on Mount Etna. Using a paternal half-sibling breeding design, we generated and then reciprocally planted c.19,000 seeds of both species, across an elevational gradient spanning each species' native elevation, and then quantified mortality and five leaf traits of emergent seedlings. We found that genetic variance in leaf traits changed more across elevations than between species. The high-elevation species at novel lower elevations showed changes in the distribution of genetic variance among the leaf traits, which reduced the amount of genetic variance in the directions of selection and the native phenotype. By contrast, the low-elevation species mainly showed changes in the amount of genetic variance at the novel high elevation, and genetic variance was concentrated in the direction of the native phenotype. For both species, leaf trait plasticity across elevations was in a direction of the multivariate phenotype that contained a moderate amount of genetic variance. Together, these data suggest that where plasticity is adaptive, selection on genetic variance for an initially plastic response could promote adaptation. However, large environmental effects on genetic variance are likely to reduce adaptive potential in novel environments